Bryophytes comprise of the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Cryphaea heteromalla, (Hedw.) D. Mohr, is a non-vascular lower plant belonging to mosses group. To the date, the most chemically characterized species belong to the liverworts, while only 3.2% and 8.8% of the species belonging to the mosses and hornworts, respectively, have been investigated. In this work, we present Folin–Ciocalteu and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) data related to crude extracts of C. heteromalla obtained by three different extraction solvents: pure water (WT), methanol:water (80:20 v/v) (MET), and ethanol:water (80:20 v/v) (ETH). The water extract proved to be the best solvent showing the highest content of biophenols and the highest ORAC value. The C. heteromalla-WT extract was investigated by HPLC-TOF/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry) allowing for the detection of 14 compounds, five of which were phenolic compounds, derivatives of benzoic, caffeic, and coumaric acids. Moreover, the C. heteromalla WT extract showed a protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) on the murine NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line.