Background: Although vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) lower serum values of bone deposition markers, the link with osteoporosis and fractures remains controversial. Objectives: To assess whether the use of VKAs is associated with an increased prevalence and/or incidence of osteoporosis, fractures, or lower bone mineral density (BMD) values. Methods: We conducted a systematic PubMed and EMBASE literature search until August 31, 2014, and a meta-analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating fractures and BMD, comparing patients treated with VKAs and healthy controls (HCs) or with patients with medical illness (medical controls, MCs). Standardized mean differences ± 95% and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for BMD, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for prevalent and incident fractures. Results: Of 4597 initial hits, 21 studies were eligible, including 79 663 individuals treated with VKAs vs. 597 348 controls. Compared with HCs, VKA-treated individuals showed significantly higher fracture risk in cross-sectional (three studies; RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.12-1.39, P < 0.0001) and longitudinal studies (seven studies; RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.18, P = 0.03) and more incident hip fractures (four studies; RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.05-1.31, P = 0.003). Analyzing studies that matched VKA participants with HCs (four studies), both these findings in longitudinal studies became non-significant. Notably, the VKA and MC group had similar BMD values at all investigated sites. Compared with HCs, a single study showed significantly lower spine T-scores in the VKA-treated group (standardized mean difference = - 0.45; 95% CI: - 0.75, - 0.14, P = 0.004). Conclusion: VKAs neither increased prospectively-assessed fracture risk compared with MCs when matching eliminated confounding factors nor reduced BMD beyond effects of medical illness. Future studies, using careful matching and/or adequate MC groups, are needed to further clarify the short- and long-term effects of VKAs on bone health. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
|Numero di pagine||11|
|Rivista||Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2015|
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