Video of Current Rootstock Use and Rootstocks Needs for the future: SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY AND ARID MEDITERRANEAN AREAS

Risultato della ricerca: Other contribution

Abstract

Grapevine rootstocks have been an essential component of grape growing for over 150 years as rootstocks can impart desirable characteristics for grapevine growth. This review examined Italian and Sicilian literature on rootstocks, focusing on key issues including updates on needs for the future. Other related issues include the performance of major selection traits associated with salinity, drought, potassium uptake, vegetative growth, grape and wine quality and the propagation of grafted vines. Research on rootstocks started in Italy, and of course in other European Countries, once phylloxera was imported. In Italy, phylloxera was detected in Agrate (north Italy) in August 1879, but it may have been present since 1870. French and Italian researchers immediately understood that phylloxera resistance was common in American species of Vitis and in September 1879, the National Ampelographic Committee of Phylloxera was born in Italy. In 1880 the Italian Minister authorized the import of 0.8 tons of Vitis rotundifolia, V. cordifolia, V. aestivalis and V. riparia seeds from Unites States. In 1883 more than 0.3 tons of seeds were distributed: 185,000 scions and 11,300 vines of different biotypes of Solonis, Riparia, Rupestris, Berlandieri, Taylor, Vialla, Clinton, Cunningham, Jacquez. In 1884 another 800 Kg V. riparia seeds and 15,000 scions of different species were distributed. From 1886-95, 36 nurseries were created on a total of 67 Hectares of cultivated surface.In order to develop research expertise, Dr. Paulsen (from Portici) and Dr. Silva (from Conegliano) went to France and later became the head of “Vivai Governativi di viti americane” in Palermo and Elba Island, respectively. From this period, research was concentrated on V. riparia and V. rupestris selections and in 1889 Palermo’s governmental nursery made the first crosses. Studies were also carried out on rootstock adaptability to different calcareous soils levels and adaptability to different environmental conditions. The important rootstocks were V. riparia, gloire and grand glabre, V. riparia x V. rupestris, 3306, 3309, V. berlandieri x V. riparia, 34 EM, 420 A, 157/11, V. rupestris du Lot and Aramon x Rupestris Ganzin n.1. At the end of 1930 the national surface of replanted vineyards grafted on American rootstocks was 809,091 hectares. In Sicily, V. riparia x V. rupestris hybrids were rejected because of grafting incompatibility with the local varieties and winegrape growers used Aramon x Rupestris Ganzin n.1. After short time, vines grafted onto this rootstock showed phylloxera damage. Nevertheless this rootstock was used in California (in 1980 75% of vineyards in Sonoma and Napa county) and also failed to phylloxera.Rupestris du Lot spread around Sicily and it was called “La bonne a tout fair” (the same role that Ru140 played twenty years later) but it experienced problems with fanleaf virus (in fact today it is used as virus indicator). The next phase of rootstock use began with the introduction of 420 A, 34 EM, 157/11, 17/37 and 41B in Sicily and in Apulia.In Southern and Northern Italy, before the Second World War, the V. berlandieri x V. rupestris (Paulsen 775, 779, 1103, 1447, 771; Ruggeri 140), V. berlandieri x V. riparia (Ruggeri 225, 235, 240; 11-18); V. riparia x V. rupestris (16-107, 16-109); and V. vinifera x V. berlandieri (10-575; 11-71) started being used as rootstocks after 20 years of evaluation. After the Second World War, a significant revolution in rootstock use was made in Sicilian viticulture. The following rootstocks 17/37, 420 A, 34 EM, 157/11 and
Lingua originaleEnglish
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2013

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