Metal toxicology represents a current major topic due to the disper-sion of these elements in the environment. Metals are released fromboth natural sources and industrial activities. Some of them havealso a clinical interest due to their application as metallodrugs (i.e.,Pt, Cu, Au, Ru, and Y) or in medical diagnosis (Gd).1,2 Recently, Vderivatives are considered as potential therapeutic factors in somediseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative and heartdisorders). As a consequence, pharmaceutical residues could repre-sent emerging pollutants of aquatic environments, as wastewatertreatment plants do not sufficiently remove these compounds3.Embryonic models represent an adequate system for testing metaltoxicity as they are sensitive to these elements. Here, we analysedthe effects of different V concentrations, from very cytotoxic(1mM) to environmentally relevant doses (50nM), using twoapproaches: the fertilization test (FT) and the metalloproteinase(MMPs) activity.4 We observed that V affected, in a dose-dependentmanner, the percentage of fertilization and increased abnormalitiesregarding the egg and/or the fertilization membrane morphology.MMPs could represent another marker of V toxicity since it gener-ates a cellular imbalance of metal ions. This would disturb the cat-alytic mechanism of these enzymes as they require ions as cofac-tors. Therefore, their dysfunction could represent a biomarker ofmetal-induced damage. We observed a total of 9 MMPs. Those withhigh molecular weight (from 309 to 59kDa) seemed to be mainlyinduced by elevated V concentrations (1mM, 500µM and 100µM).Conversely, low molecular weight MMPs (from 34 to 22kDa)appeared to be completely inhibited by these high V doses. On theother hand, lower V concentrations seemed to be more tolerated asthere were no significant differences compared to control. In con-clusion, FT and MMP activity could represent a reliable method totest V toxicity, using the sea urchin as a sensitive model system.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)8-8
Numero di pagine1
RivistaEuropean Journal of Histochemistry
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2021


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