Tuberous Breast: Past, Present, and Future: Personal Classification, Treatment, and Surgical Outcomes

Adriana Cordova, Francesco Ciancio, Alessandro Innocenti, Dario Melita, Francesco Mori, Adriana Cordova, Marco Innocenti

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

21 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background Tuberous breast (TB) is a rare congenital deformity, which may appear in different clinical forms representing various degrees of a single pathological entity. The worst cases are characterized by severe hypoplasia. Following a detailed analysis of the available relevant literature and a significant number of treated cases, in this article, the authors propose a new classification, with the aim of summarizing and simplifying a more intuitive categorization of the malformation, considering all the clinical aspects and including all types of TBs, even the minor ones, thus allowing a more immediate diagnosis and surgical planning. Methods Between September 2006 and December 2015, 78 patients with TBs underwent surgical procedures to correct the deformity. The patients' mean age was 18.6 years, ranging between 17 and 26 years. There being 11 monolateral deformities, the treated TBs amounted to 145. A periareolar approach, adipo-glandular flaps, and dual plane breast implant placements were performed. Postoperative follow-up include photos collected 12 months after operation. The authors present a personal classification including all the forms of the deformity, plus the minor forms based on the following 2 principal categories: hypoplastic and normoplastic TBs, taking into account all the clinical aspects of the malformation including the morphology and the consistency of the breast. Conclusions Preoperative identification of the type of the deformity is essential to obtain satisfactory results and a complete and intuitive classification including all the possible variants of the deformity, even the minor forms, and fundamental in diagnosing and resolving the problem. In this article, the authors propose a personal classification and surgical procedure to resolve the malformation.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)104-108
Numero di pagine5
RivistaAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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