Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome

Annamaria Pepi, Gaetano Rappo, Davide Martino, Vito Martino, Francesco Cardona, Carmelo Mario Vicario, Roberta Giacchè, Paola Rosaria Silvestri, Felice Spata, Giovanni Defazio

Risultato della ricerca: Article

30 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by dysfunctional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical structures, and altered meso-cortical and/or meso-striatal dopamine release. Since time processing is also regulated by fronto-striatal circuits and modulated by dopaminergic transmission, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in TS. Methods: We compared time processing abilities between nine children with TS-only (i.e. without major psychiatric comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy children, employing a time reproduction task in which subjects actively reproduce different temporal intervals, and a time comparison task in which subjects judge whether a test interval is longer or shorter than a reference interval. IQ sustained and divided attention, and working memory were assessed in both groups using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, and the Digit Span sub-test of the WISC-R. Results: Children with TS-only reproduced in an overestimated fashion over-second, but not sub-second, time intervals. The precision of over-second intervals reproduction correlated with tic severity, in that the lower the tic severity, the closer the reproduction of over-second time intervals to their real duration. Time reproduction performance did not significantly correlate with IQ attention and working memory measures in both groups. No differences between groups were documented in the time comparison task. Conclusions: The improvement of time processing in children with TS-only seems specific for the over-second range of intervals, consistent with an enhancement in the 'cognitively controlled' timing system, which mainly processes longer duration intervals, and depends upon dysfunctional connectivity between the basal ganglia and the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The absence of between-group differences on time comparison, moreover, suggests that TS patients manifest a selective improvement of 'motor' timing abilities, rather than of perceptual time abilities. Our data also support an enhancement of cognitive control processes in TS children, probably facilitated by effortful tic suppression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)28-34
Numero di pagine7
RivistaBrain and Cognition
Volume73
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2010

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Tourette Syndrome
Tics
Aptitude
Reproduction
Corpus Striatum
Prefrontal Cortex
Short-Term Memory
Syndrome
Basal Ganglia
Psychiatry
Comorbidity
Dopamine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

Cita questo

Pepi, A., Rappo, G., Martino, D., Martino, V., Cardona, F., Vicario, C. M., ... Defazio, G. (2010). Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 73, 28-34.

Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome. / Pepi, Annamaria; Rappo, Gaetano; Martino, Davide; Martino, Vito; Cardona, Francesco; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Giacchè, Roberta; Silvestri, Paola Rosaria; Spata, Felice; Defazio, Giovanni.

In: Brain and Cognition, Vol. 73, 2010, pag. 28-34.

Risultato della ricerca: Article

Pepi, A, Rappo, G, Martino, D, Martino, V, Cardona, F, Vicario, CM, Giacchè, R, Silvestri, PR, Spata, F & Defazio, G 2010, 'Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome', Brain and Cognition, vol. 73, pagg. 28-34.
Pepi A, Rappo G, Martino D, Martino V, Cardona F, Vicario CM e altri. Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome. Brain and Cognition. 2010;73:28-34.
Pepi, Annamaria ; Rappo, Gaetano ; Martino, Davide ; Martino, Vito ; Cardona, Francesco ; Vicario, Carmelo Mario ; Giacchè, Roberta ; Silvestri, Paola Rosaria ; Spata, Felice ; Defazio, Giovanni. / Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome. In: Brain and Cognition. 2010 ; Vol. 73. pagg. 28-34.
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abstract = "Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by dysfunctional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical structures, and altered meso-cortical and/or meso-striatal dopamine release. Since time processing is also regulated by fronto-striatal circuits and modulated by dopaminergic transmission, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in TS. Methods: We compared time processing abilities between nine children with TS-only (i.e. without major psychiatric comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy children, employing a time reproduction task in which subjects actively reproduce different temporal intervals, and a time comparison task in which subjects judge whether a test interval is longer or shorter than a reference interval. IQ sustained and divided attention, and working memory were assessed in both groups using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, and the Digit Span sub-test of the WISC-R. Results: Children with TS-only reproduced in an overestimated fashion over-second, but not sub-second, time intervals. The precision of over-second intervals reproduction correlated with tic severity, in that the lower the tic severity, the closer the reproduction of over-second time intervals to their real duration. Time reproduction performance did not significantly correlate with IQ attention and working memory measures in both groups. No differences between groups were documented in the time comparison task. Conclusions: The improvement of time processing in children with TS-only seems specific for the over-second range of intervals, consistent with an enhancement in the 'cognitively controlled' timing system, which mainly processes longer duration intervals, and depends upon dysfunctional connectivity between the basal ganglia and the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The absence of between-group differences on time comparison, moreover, suggests that TS patients manifest a selective improvement of 'motor' timing abilities, rather than of perceptual time abilities. Our data also support an enhancement of cognitive control processes in TS children, probably facilitated by effortful tic suppression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
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author = "Annamaria Pepi and Gaetano Rappo and Davide Martino and Vito Martino and Francesco Cardona and Vicario, {Carmelo Mario} and Roberta Giacch{\`e} and Silvestri, {Paola Rosaria} and Felice Spata and Giovanni Defazio",
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T1 - Time processing in children with Tourette's syndrome

AU - Pepi, Annamaria

AU - Rappo, Gaetano

AU - Martino, Davide

AU - Martino, Vito

AU - Cardona, Francesco

AU - Vicario, Carmelo Mario

AU - Giacchè, Roberta

AU - Silvestri, Paola Rosaria

AU - Spata, Felice

AU - Defazio, Giovanni

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by dysfunctional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical structures, and altered meso-cortical and/or meso-striatal dopamine release. Since time processing is also regulated by fronto-striatal circuits and modulated by dopaminergic transmission, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in TS. Methods: We compared time processing abilities between nine children with TS-only (i.e. without major psychiatric comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy children, employing a time reproduction task in which subjects actively reproduce different temporal intervals, and a time comparison task in which subjects judge whether a test interval is longer or shorter than a reference interval. IQ sustained and divided attention, and working memory were assessed in both groups using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, and the Digit Span sub-test of the WISC-R. Results: Children with TS-only reproduced in an overestimated fashion over-second, but not sub-second, time intervals. The precision of over-second intervals reproduction correlated with tic severity, in that the lower the tic severity, the closer the reproduction of over-second time intervals to their real duration. Time reproduction performance did not significantly correlate with IQ attention and working memory measures in both groups. No differences between groups were documented in the time comparison task. Conclusions: The improvement of time processing in children with TS-only seems specific for the over-second range of intervals, consistent with an enhancement in the 'cognitively controlled' timing system, which mainly processes longer duration intervals, and depends upon dysfunctional connectivity between the basal ganglia and the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The absence of between-group differences on time comparison, moreover, suggests that TS patients manifest a selective improvement of 'motor' timing abilities, rather than of perceptual time abilities. Our data also support an enhancement of cognitive control processes in TS children, probably facilitated by effortful tic suppression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

AB - Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by dysfunctional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and sub-cortical structures, and altered meso-cortical and/or meso-striatal dopamine release. Since time processing is also regulated by fronto-striatal circuits and modulated by dopaminergic transmission, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in TS. Methods: We compared time processing abilities between nine children with TS-only (i.e. without major psychiatric comorbidities) and 10 age-matched healthy children, employing a time reproduction task in which subjects actively reproduce different temporal intervals, and a time comparison task in which subjects judge whether a test interval is longer or shorter than a reference interval. IQ sustained and divided attention, and working memory were assessed in both groups using the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, and the Digit Span sub-test of the WISC-R. Results: Children with TS-only reproduced in an overestimated fashion over-second, but not sub-second, time intervals. The precision of over-second intervals reproduction correlated with tic severity, in that the lower the tic severity, the closer the reproduction of over-second time intervals to their real duration. Time reproduction performance did not significantly correlate with IQ attention and working memory measures in both groups. No differences between groups were documented in the time comparison task. Conclusions: The improvement of time processing in children with TS-only seems specific for the over-second range of intervals, consistent with an enhancement in the 'cognitively controlled' timing system, which mainly processes longer duration intervals, and depends upon dysfunctional connectivity between the basal ganglia and the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. The absence of between-group differences on time comparison, moreover, suggests that TS patients manifest a selective improvement of 'motor' timing abilities, rather than of perceptual time abilities. Our data also support an enhancement of cognitive control processes in TS children, probably facilitated by effortful tic suppression. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KW - Tourette's syndrome, temporal processing, time comparison, time reproduction, tic severity

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/47143

M3 - Article

VL - 73

SP - 28

EP - 34

JO - Brain and Cognition

JF - Brain and Cognition

SN - 0278-2626

ER -