The emergence of loss of efficacy during antidepressant drug treatment for major depressive disorder: An integrative review of evidence, mechanisms, and clinical implications

Nicola Veronese, Nicola Veronese, Michael Berk, Stefano Novello, Andrea Fusco, Riccardo Pariano, Brendon Stubbs, André F. Carvalho, Marco Solmi, Andrea De Bartolomeis, Michele Fornaro, Eduard Vieta, Domenico De Berardis, Annalisa Anastasia

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

17 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

The re-emergence (i.e. ‘breakthrough’) of depressive symptoms despite maintenance treatment of depression with antidepressant drugs is a complex clinical phenomenon referred to as tolerance. Herein we critically appraise evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical studies, focusing on putative mechanisms as well as clinical correlates and implications of the emergence tolerance during antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is firstly unclear to what extent this phenotype reflects a pharmacological effect of an antidepressant, is driven by non-adherence, is a marker of latent bipolarity or another comorbidity, a marker of neuroprogression of the underlying disorder or the intrusion of the impact of psychosocial variables into the clinical course. The operational definitions of tolerance and its related phenomena have also been largely inconsistent. Several protective clinical indicators have been proposed, including a rapid-cycling course and comorbid chronic anxiety, whilst poor treatment adherence, proneness to emotional blunting and sub-threshold bipolarity have been identified as possible correlates of tolerance to antidepressant treatment in MDD. Putative neurobiological underpinnings include adaptations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the serotonergic system. Due to the clinical and diagnostic challenges imposed by the emergence of tolerance to antidepressants, there is an urgent need for upcoming international guidelines to reach a consensus on operational definitions for this complex clinical phenomenon, thus enabling a more precise appreciation of the incidence and correlates of tolerance to antidepressants. Taken together, the present review underscores the need to cautiously weight benefits and risks prior to considering long-term antidepressant treatment for patients with MDD as tolerance may emerge in a subset of patients. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)494-502
Numero di pagine9
RivistaPharmacological Research
Volume139
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology

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