The intracellular redox state in the cell depends on the balance between the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of defensive systems including antioxidant enzymes. This balance is a dynamic process that can change in relation to many factors and/or stimuli induced within the cell. ROS production is derived from physiological metabolic events. For instance, mitochondria represent the major ROS sources during oxidative phosphorylation, but other systems, such as NADPH oxidase or specific enzymes in certain metabolisms, may account for ROS production as well. Whereas high levels of ROS perturb the cell environment, causing oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, low levels of ROS can exert a functional role in the cell, influencing the activity of specific enzymes or modulating some intracellular signaling cascades. Of particular interest appears to be the role of ROS in tumor systems not only because ROS are known to be tumorigenic but also because tumor cells are able to modify their redox state, regulating ROS production to sustain tumor growth and proliferation. Overall, the scope of this review was to critically discuss the most recent findings pertaining to ROS physiological roles as well as to highlight the controversial involvement of ROS in tumor systems.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Rivista||Chemical Research in Toxicology|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2018|
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