Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO). It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Rivista||Invertebrate Survival Journal|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Animal Science and Zoology