The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

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Abstract

Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO). It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)S67-S76
Numero di pagine10
RivistaInvertebrate Survival Journal
Volume6
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2009

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prophenoloxidase
Ascidiacea
monophenol monooxygenase
serine proteinases
zymogens
melanization
melanin
skin (animal)
trichomes
arthropods
bioactive properties
Crustacea
invertebrates
insects
synthesis
fruits
color
pathogens
organisms
cells

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology

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title = "The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system",
abstract = "Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO). It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.",
keywords = "Ciona intestinalis; ascidians; proPO; phenoloxidase; immune response; hemocytes",
author = "Nicolo' Parrinello and Matteo Cammarata",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "S67--S76",
journal = "Invertebrate Survival Journal",
issn = "1824-307X",
publisher = "University of Modena and Reggio Emilia",

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T1 - The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

AU - Parrinello, Nicolo'

AU - Cammarata, Matteo

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO). It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.

AB - Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO). It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.

KW - Ciona intestinalis; ascidians; proPO; phenoloxidase; immune response; hemocytes

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/42848

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - S67-S76

JO - Invertebrate Survival Journal

JF - Invertebrate Survival Journal

SN - 1824-307X

ER -