Hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half of all cases at unresectable stage when no potentially curative treatments are feasible. Since 2008, sorafenib had represented the only effective first line systemic therapy over the last decade until the approval of lenvatinib, who showed to be non-inferior to sorafenib. Recently, for the first time, a combination of immunotherapy and antiangiogenic drug, atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, was associated with a significantly longer overall survival and progression free survival compared to sorafenib, becoming the new best performing first-line approach for unresectable HCC. After several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have attempted to find an effective second-line therapy, regorafenib, cabozantinib, ramucirumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab represent approved treatments for patients who failed first-line treatment. However, inclusion criteria of second-line RCTs are quite heterogeneous and no direct comparisons exist among these agents. Exciting opportunities have been found either in the combination or in the sequencing of these agents, but the optimal therapeutic strategy for these patients remains elusive. Moreover, the coexistence of cirrhosis and the competing risk of liver decompensation increase the complexity of the assessment of the net health benefit of the available therapeutic approaches. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence on systemic treatments for unresectable HCC and to explore the future perspectives on this topic.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)110-116
Numero di pagine7
RivistaRecenti Progressi in Medicina
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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