Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Application of Automotive Batteries (SASLAB) - JRC Exploratory Research (2016-2017) Final technical report August 2018

Risultato della ricerca: Other contribution

Abstract

The fast increase of the electrified vehicles market will translate into an increase ofwaste batteries after their use in electrified vehicles (xEV). Once collected, batteries areusually recycled; however, their residual capacity (typically varying between 70% and80% of the initial capacity) could be used in other applications before recycling. Theinterest in this topic of repurposing xEV batteries is currently high, as can be proven bynumerous industrial initiatives by various types of stakeholders along the value chain ofxEV batteries and by policy activities related to waste xEV batteries.SASLAB (Sustainability Assessment of Second Life Application of Automotive Batteries),an exploratory project led by JRC under its own initiative in 2016-2017, aims atassessing the sustainability of repurposing xEV batteries to be used in energy storageapplications from technical, environmental and social perspectives.Information collected by stakeholders, open literature data and experimental tests forestablishing the state of health of lithium-ion batteries (in particular LFP/Graphite,NMC/Graphite and LMO-NMC/Graphite based battery cells) represented the necessarybackground and input information for the assessment of the performances of xEVbattery life cycle. Renewables (photovoltaics) firming, photovoltaics smoothing, primaryfrequency regulation, energy time shift and peak shaving are considered as the possiblesecond-use stationary storage applications for analysis within SASLAB.Experimental tests were performed on both, new and aged cells. The majority of agedcells were disassembled from a battery pack of a used series production xEV.Experimental investigations aim at both, to understand better the performance of cells insecond use after being dismissed from first use, and to provide input parameters for theenvironmental assessment model. The experimental tests are partially still ongoing andfurther results are expected to become available beyond the end of SASLAB project.To obtain an overview of the size of the xEV batteries flows along their life cycle, andhence to understand the potential size of repurposing activities in the future, a predictiveand parametrized model was built and is ready to be updated according to new futuredata. The model allows to take into account also the (residual) capacity of xEV batteriesand the (critical) raw materials embedded in the various type of xEV batteries. For theenvironmental assessment, an adapted life-cycle based method was developed andapplied to different systems in order to quantify benefits/drawbacks of the adoption ofrepurposed xEV batteries in second-use applications. Data derived from laboratory testsand primary data concerning energy flows of the assessed applications were used asinput for the environmental assessment. Under certain conditions, the assessmentresults depict environmental benefits related to the extension the xEV batteries’ lifetimethrough their second-use in the assessed applications. In the analysis, the importance ofusing primary data is highlighted especially concerning the energy flows of the system incombination with the characteristics of the battery used to store energy. A morecomprehensive environmental assessment of repurposing options for xEV batteries willneed to look at more cases (other battery chemistries, other reuse scenarios, etc.) toderive more extensive and firmer conclusions. Experimental work is being continued atthe JRC and the availability of further data about the batteries' performances could allowthe extension of the assessment to different types of bat
Lingua originaleEnglish
Numero di pagine140
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

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