Standard and Specialized Infant Formulas in Europe: Making, Marketing, and Health Outcomes

Giovanni Corsello, Gregorio Serra, Valeria Dipasquale, Claudio Romano

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

3 Citazioni (Scopus)


Infant formulas are the only suitable substitute for human milk. The most common infant formulas are standard formulas based on cow's milk. In addition, there are formulas for infants showing signs and symptoms of intolerance and for clinical conditions such as allergy, prematurity, and gastrointestinal diseases. A comprehensive review of the literature was made to review the composition of standard and specialized infant formulas and analyze indications for use, real or presumed nutrition differences and properties, and impact on infant growth. A brief consideration on costs is outlined for each formula. Over the past few years, industrial production and advertising of infant formulas have increased. Human milk still remains the most complete source of nutrition for infants and should be continued according to the current recommendations. Few differences exist between infant formulas, both for the nutrition action and the macronutrient/micronutrient composition. Specialized infant formulas have limited indications for use and high costs. The role of the pediatrician is crucial in the management of infant nutrition, promotion of breastfeeding, and prescribing of specialized formulas only in specific clinical conditions.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Numero di pagine9
RivistaNutrition in Clinical Practice
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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  • ???subjectarea.asjc.2900.2916???


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