specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (cnidaria) after bacterial injection cause tissue rejection and enzymatic activity alteration

Risultato della ricerca: Other

Abstract

The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptation to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self” have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction. The phylum of Cnidaria is one of the first branches in the tree of animal life to provide crucial insights on the evolution of immunity. Sea anemones (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) are benthic sessile species able to maintain the integrity of the tissues and allorecognition in colonial forms and to differentiate between symbionts and pathogenic intruders.We investigated the inflammatory response in sea anemone Anemonia sulcata following injection of various substances different in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. In particular we studied the effect of injectioninoculation of different sized suspensions (LPS, Phenyl Sepharose, cellulose, red blood cells, bacteria) into the pedal disk, of specimens in order to observe differential physical, biochemical and enzymatic reactions. We have shown for the first time in cnidarians a specific cellular and molecular response against pathogenic bacteria. The first phenomenon we observed was a body and foot swelling, followed by the formation of a yellowish rejection zone . A further study was also carried out by a histological analysis for the characterization of the area of rejection.This specific response suggested an extrusion of the material damaged by the animal, probably from the pores cinclides from which protrude the acontia in the pedal disk, a defense mechanism that has not yet been found in other cnidarians.Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes, that catabolize prey tissues, suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific inflammatory-like response rejection and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in Cnidarian.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Numero di pagine1
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2015

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Cnidaria
inflammation
injection
Anthozoa
Acontia
bacteria
Vibrio alginolyticus
host-pathogen relationships
enzymatic reactions
chemical reactions
coevolution
defense mechanisms
extrusion
esterases
symbionts
agarose
animals
cellulose
erythrocytes
proteinases

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title = "specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (cnidaria) after bacterial injection cause tissue rejection and enzymatic activity alteration",
abstract = "The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptation to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self” have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction. The phylum of Cnidaria is one of the first branches in the tree of animal life to provide crucial insights on the evolution of immunity. Sea anemones (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) are benthic sessile species able to maintain the integrity of the tissues and allorecognition in colonial forms and to differentiate between symbionts and pathogenic intruders.We investigated the inflammatory response in sea anemone Anemonia sulcata following injection of various substances different in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. In particular we studied the effect of injectioninoculation of different sized suspensions (LPS, Phenyl Sepharose, cellulose, red blood cells, bacteria) into the pedal disk, of specimens in order to observe differential physical, biochemical and enzymatic reactions. We have shown for the first time in cnidarians a specific cellular and molecular response against pathogenic bacteria. The first phenomenon we observed was a body and foot swelling, followed by the formation of a yellowish rejection zone . A further study was also carried out by a histological analysis for the characterization of the area of rejection.This specific response suggested an extrusion of the material damaged by the animal, probably from the pores cinclides from which protrude the acontia in the pedal disk, a defense mechanism that has not yet been found in other cnidarians.Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes, that catabolize prey tissues, suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific inflammatory-like response rejection and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in Cnidarian.",
keywords = "Anemonia sulcata (cnidaria), enzymatic activity alteration, inflammation",
author = "Daniela Parrinello and Trapani, {Maria Rosa} and Sanfratello, {Maria Antonietta} and Matteo Cammarata and Parisi, {Maria Giovanna} and Gigliola Benenati",
year = "2015",
language = "English",

}

TY - CONF

T1 - specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (cnidaria) after bacterial injection cause tissue rejection and enzymatic activity alteration

AU - Parrinello, Daniela

AU - Trapani, Maria Rosa

AU - Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta

AU - Cammarata, Matteo

AU - Parisi, Maria Giovanna

AU - Benenati, Gigliola

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptation to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self” have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction. The phylum of Cnidaria is one of the first branches in the tree of animal life to provide crucial insights on the evolution of immunity. Sea anemones (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) are benthic sessile species able to maintain the integrity of the tissues and allorecognition in colonial forms and to differentiate between symbionts and pathogenic intruders.We investigated the inflammatory response in sea anemone Anemonia sulcata following injection of various substances different in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. In particular we studied the effect of injectioninoculation of different sized suspensions (LPS, Phenyl Sepharose, cellulose, red blood cells, bacteria) into the pedal disk, of specimens in order to observe differential physical, biochemical and enzymatic reactions. We have shown for the first time in cnidarians a specific cellular and molecular response against pathogenic bacteria. The first phenomenon we observed was a body and foot swelling, followed by the formation of a yellowish rejection zone . A further study was also carried out by a histological analysis for the characterization of the area of rejection.This specific response suggested an extrusion of the material damaged by the animal, probably from the pores cinclides from which protrude the acontia in the pedal disk, a defense mechanism that has not yet been found in other cnidarians.Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes, that catabolize prey tissues, suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific inflammatory-like response rejection and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in Cnidarian.

AB - The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptation to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self” have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction. The phylum of Cnidaria is one of the first branches in the tree of animal life to provide crucial insights on the evolution of immunity. Sea anemones (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) are benthic sessile species able to maintain the integrity of the tissues and allorecognition in colonial forms and to differentiate between symbionts and pathogenic intruders.We investigated the inflammatory response in sea anemone Anemonia sulcata following injection of various substances different in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. In particular we studied the effect of injectioninoculation of different sized suspensions (LPS, Phenyl Sepharose, cellulose, red blood cells, bacteria) into the pedal disk, of specimens in order to observe differential physical, biochemical and enzymatic reactions. We have shown for the first time in cnidarians a specific cellular and molecular response against pathogenic bacteria. The first phenomenon we observed was a body and foot swelling, followed by the formation of a yellowish rejection zone . A further study was also carried out by a histological analysis for the characterization of the area of rejection.This specific response suggested an extrusion of the material damaged by the animal, probably from the pores cinclides from which protrude the acontia in the pedal disk, a defense mechanism that has not yet been found in other cnidarians.Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes, that catabolize prey tissues, suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific inflammatory-like response rejection and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in Cnidarian.

KW - Anemonia sulcata (cnidaria)

KW - enzymatic activity alteration

KW - inflammation

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/146413

M3 - Other

ER -