Selective activation of shoulder, trunk, and arm muscles: A comparative analysis of different push-up variants

Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Marcolin, Nicola Petrone, Tatiana Moro

Risultato della ricerca: Article

7 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

Context: The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective: To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s): Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results: The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions: Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the greater activation of abdominal and back muscles.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1126-1132
Numero di pagine7
RivistaJournal of Athletic Training
Volume50
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2015

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Arm
Muscles
Electromyography
Upper Extremity
Back Muscles
Superficial Back Muscles
Abdomen
Head
Activation Analysis
Abdominal Muscles
Rectus Abdominis
Low Back Pain
Biomechanical Phenomena
Healthy Volunteers
Spine
Cross-Sectional Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Exercise
Wounds and Injuries

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cita questo

Selective activation of shoulder, trunk, and arm muscles: A comparative analysis of different push-up variants. / Bianco, Antonino; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Moro, Tatiana.

In: Journal of Athletic Training, Vol. 50, 2015, pag. 1126-1132.

Risultato della ricerca: Article

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abstract = "Context: The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective: To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s): Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results: The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions: Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the greater activation of abdominal and back muscles.",
author = "Antonino Bianco and Giuseppe Battaglia and Antonio Paoli and Giuseppe Marcolin and Nicola Petrone and Tatiana Moro",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
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T1 - Selective activation of shoulder, trunk, and arm muscles: A comparative analysis of different push-up variants

AU - Bianco, Antonino

AU - Battaglia, Giuseppe

AU - Paoli, Antonio

AU - Marcolin, Giuseppe

AU - Petrone, Nicola

AU - Moro, Tatiana

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Context: The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective: To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s): Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results: The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions: Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the greater activation of abdominal and back muscles.

AB - Context: The push-up is a widely used exercise for upper limb strengthening that can be performed with many variants. A comprehensive analysis of muscle activation during the ascendant phase (AP) and descendant phase (DP) in different variants could be useful for trainers and rehabilitators. Objective: To obtain information on the effect of different push-up variants on the electromyography (EMG) of a large sample of upper limb muscles and to investigate the role of the trunk and abdomen muscles during the AP and DP. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eight healthy, young volunteers without a history of upper extremity or spine injury. Intervention(s): Participants performed a set of 10 repetitions for each push-up variant: standard, wide, narrow, forward (FP), and backward (BP). Surface EMG of 12 selected muscles and kinematics data were synchronously recorded to describe the AP and DP. Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean EMG activity of the following muscles was analyzed: serratus anterior, deltoideus anterior, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii caput longus, triceps brachii caput lateralis, obliquus externus abdominis, pectoralis major sternal head, pectoralis major clavicular head, trapezius transversalis, and biceps brachii. Results: The triceps brachii and pectoralis major exhibited greater activation during the narrow-base variant. The highest activation of abdomen and back muscles was recorded for the FP and BP variants. The DP demonstrated the least electrical activity across all muscles, with less marked differences for the abdominal and erector spinae muscles because of their role as stabilizers. Conclusions: Based on these findings, we suggest the narrow-base variant to emphasize triceps and pectoralis activity and the BP variant for total upper body strength conditioning. The FP and BP variants should be implemented carefully in participants with low back pain because of the greater activation of abdominal and back muscles.

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EP - 1132

JO - Journal of Athletic Training

JF - Journal of Athletic Training

SN - 1062-6050

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