School Grading and Institutional Contexts

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Abstract

We study how the relationship between students’ cognitive abilityand their school grades depend on institutional context. In a simple abstractmodel we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school levelor variation of competence across schools is low, students’ competence valua-tion will be heterogeneous, with weaker schools inflating grades or flatteningtheir dependence on competence, therefore reducing the information contentand comparability of school grades.Using data from the OECD-PISA 2003 Survey the model is applied to a sam-ple of 4 countries, namely Australia, Germany, Italy and The Netherlands. Wefind that in Australia schools heterogeneity does not affect grading practices; inthe other countries grades are inflated in weaker schools, uniformly in Germanyand The Netherlands, to a larger extent for weaker students in Italy.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)475-486
Numero di pagine12
RivistaEducation Economics
Volume19
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2011

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Economics and Econometrics

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