Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activation of NK cells through their interaction with human leukocyte antigens (HLA). KIRs and HLA loci are highly polymorphic and certain HLA-KIRs combinations have been found to protect against viral infections. In this study we review how the KIRs/HLA repertoire may influence the course of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Results of our study suggest that a combination of KIRs/HLA gene/alleles is able to predict the outcome of viral infection and allows to plan successful customized therapeutic strategies.
Giannitrapani, L., De Grazia, S., Pinto, A., Caruso, C., Tuttolomondo, A., Colomba, C., Cascio, A.
, Nogare, R. D., Bilancia, M., Di Bona, D., Duro, G., Saracino, A., Sanfilippo, A., Angarano, G., Di Bona, D., Duro, G., Guadagnino, G., & Trizzino, M. (2017). Ruolo dell'interazione NK/KIR nella storia naturale delle infezioni virali
. RECENTI PROGRESSI IN MEDICINA