INTRODUCTION: Although some authors evaluated the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MeDi) and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke alone is not yet examined. AIMS: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the relationship between adherence to MeDi and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and different locations of ICH (ganglionic/internal capsule, brainstem/cerebellum, or lobar). METHODS: We analyzed charts and collected data of all consecutive patients with ICH admitted to our Internal Medicine Ward from 2005 to 2014. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional MeDi Score was constructed. RESULTS: When compared with 100 subjects without ICH, 103 subjects with ICH had significantly higher mean values of LDL (91.1 ± 38.7 mg/dl vs. 79.2 ± 34.4 mg/dl; p = 0.031), triglycerides (118.9 ± 62.9 mg/dl vs. 101.6 ± 47.6 mg/dl; p = 0.026), and proteinuria (32.6 ± 50.0 mg/dl vs. 18.1 ± 39.6 mg/dl; p=0.024) and a significantly lower mean MeDi Score (3.9 ± 1.0 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4; p < 0.0001). In a multiple regression analysis, smoking, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the MeDi Score remained significantly associated with ICH. We also observed a significantly lower mean MeDi Score in the lobar location group when compared with the ganglionic/internal capsule group (4.3 ± 1.0 vs. 3.5 ± 0.9; p < 0.0005). DISCUSSION: Our findings regarding the higher prevalence of ICH in patients with lower adherence to MeDi may be related to the fact that patients with lower MeDi Score exhibit a worse cardiovascular risk profile with increased risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia.