Controlled synthesis of nanoscalar and nanostructured materials enables the development of novelfunctional materials with fine-tuned optical, mechanical, electronic, magnetic, conductive and catalyticproperties that are of use in numerous applications. These materials have also found theirpotential use in medicine as vehicles for drug delivery, in diagnostics or in combinations thereof.In principle, nanoparticles can be divided into two broad categories, organic and inorganic nanoparticles.For both types of nanoparticles there are numerous possible synthetic routes. Consideringthe large difference in nature of these materials and the elementary reactions involved in the syntheticroutes, most manufacturing techniques are complex and only suitable for one type of particle.Interestingly, radiation chemistry, i.e., the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes and acceleratorsto induce nanomaterials or chemical changes in materials, has proven to be a versatile toolfor controlled manufacturing of both organic and inorganic nanoparticles. The advantages of usingradiation chemistry for this purpose are many, such as low energy consumption, minimal use ofpotentially harmful chemicals and simple production schemes. For medical applications one moreadvantage is that the material can be sterile as manufactured. Radiation-induced synthesis canbe carried out in aqueous systems, which minimizes the use of organic solvents and the need forseparation and purification of the final product. The radiation chemistry of water is well known, asare the various ways of fine-tuning the reactivity of the system towards a desired target by addingdifferent solutes. This, in combination with the controllable and adjustable irradiation process parameters,makes the technique superior to most other chemical methods. In this review, we discuss thefundamentals of radiation chemistry and radiation-induced synthesis of nanoparticles in aqueoussolutions. The impact of dose and dose rate as well as of controlled addition of various soluteson the final particle composition, size and size distribution are described in detail and discussed interms of reaction mechanism and kinetics.
|Numero di pagine||23|
|Rivista||Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics