This review discusses the application of pulse EPR to the characterization of disordered systems, with an emphasis on samples containing transition metals. Electron nuclear double-resonance (ENDOR), electron-spin-echo envelope-modulation (ESEEM), and double electron-electron resonance (DEER) methodologies are outlined. The theory of field modulation is outlined, and its application is illustrated with DEER experiments. The simulation of powder spectra in EPR is discussed, and strategies for optimization are given. The implementation of this armory of techniques is demonstrated on a rich variety of chemical systems: several porphyrin derivatives that are found in proteins and used as model systems, otherwise highly reactive aminyl radicals stabilized with electron-rich transition metals, and nitroxide-copper-nitroxide clusters. These examples show that multi-frequency continuous-wave (CW) and pulse EPR provides detailed information about disordered systems.
|Numero di pagine||26|
|Rivista||Helvetica Chimica Acta|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2006|