Anisakis simplex (AS) is a cause of allergic sensitization and potential occupational riskis suggested in fishermen and workers assigned to fish processing and sale. A cross-sectional studywas conducted in order to assess possible health effects of occupational exposure to AS in workersrecruited from western Sicily fisheries sector. Social, demographic, and occupation-related data werecollected. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels to AS (threshold >0.35kU/L) were determined by an fluoroimmunoassay technique. Ninety-four subjects with potentialoccupational exposure (fishmongers, fishermen, fish industry employees) were recruited. Specific ASIgEs were detected in 20.2% of the study population. AS IgE seroprevalence was elevated 6.7-fold(p = .03) among fishermen/sailors compared with fish industry workers. The study suggested theimportance to adopt specific prevention strategies against exposure to AS in the occupational setting.