Pre-sleep arousal and sleep quality during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy

Maria Rosaria Bonsignore, Dario Arnaldi, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Valentina Alfonsi, Luigi De Gennaro, Giulio Alessandro Bonetti, Monica Puligheddu, Cinzia Castronovo, Claudio Vicini, Biancamaria Guarnieri, Francesco Fanfulla, Enrica Bonanni, Sergio Garbarino, Giuseppe Plazzi, Alessandro Silvani, Michelangelo Maestri, Raffaele Manni, Lino NobiliLuigi Ferini-Strambi, Laura Palagini, Raffaele Ferri

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

Abstract

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly affected daily habits and psychological wellbeing, and many studies point to large modifications in several sleep and sleep-related domains. Nevertheless, pre-sleep arousal during the pandemic has been substantially overlooked. Since hyperarousal represents one of the main factors for the development and the perpetuation of chronic insomnia disorder, the assessment of variables associated with high levels of pre-sleep arousal during the pandemic is clinically relevant. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of perceived sleep quality and pre-sleep arousal in an Italian sample during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: We used an online survey to collect self-reported sociodemographic, environmental, clinical, sleep, and sleep-related data. Our final sample included 761 participants. Results: Beyond a high frequency of poor sleep quality, depressive and stress symptoms, our results show that almost half of the sample suffered from clinically relevant levels of at least one component (ie, cognitive, somatic) of pre-sleep arousal. Subjects with greater pre-sleep arousal exhibited poorer sleep quality. Also, sleep quality was strongly associated with somatic and cognitive pre-sleep arousal. Regarding the predictors of sleep and sleep-related measures, depressive and event-related stress symptoms were the main factors associated with both poor sleep quality and pre-sleep arousal components. Moreover, specific sociodemographic and environmental variables were uniquely related to sleep quality, cognitive or somatic pre-sleep arousal. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the assessment of specific sleep-related factors (ie, pre-sleep arousal), together with more global measures of sleep quality, may be crucial to depict the complex impact of the pandemic on sleep, and to help prevent and counteract the spread of insomnia symptoms.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)46-57
Numero di pagine12
RivistaSleep Medicine
Volume88
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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