Physiopathologica, epidemiologica, clinical and therapeutic aspects of exercise-associated hyponatriemia

Gregorio Caimi, Caterina Urso, Salvatore Brucculeri

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    Abstract

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variantof inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasmaconcentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common inendurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which bothathletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, andmanagement. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake,inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to nonosmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures.Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting,confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associatedwith pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis andappropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form toensure a positive outcome.
    Lingua originaleEnglish
    pagine (da-a)1258-1275
    Numero di pagine18
    RivistaJournal of Clinical Medicine
    Volume3
    Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

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    Hyponatremia
    Exercise
    Inappropriate ADH Syndrome
    Hypertonic Saline Solutions
    Therapeutics
    Confusion
    Brain Edema
    Pulmonary Edema
    Vasopressins
    Respiratory Insufficiency
    Nausea
    Drinking
    Signs and Symptoms
    Vomiting
    Headache
    Seizures
    Sodium
    Temperature
    Pharmaceutical Preparations

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    abstract = "Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variantof inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasmaconcentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common inendurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which bothathletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, andmanagement. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake,inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to nonosmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures.Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting,confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associatedwith pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis andappropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form toensure a positive outcome.",
    keywords = "SIADH, exercise, hypertonic saline, hyponatremia",
    author = "Gregorio Caimi and Caterina Urso and Salvatore Brucculeri",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Physiopathologica, epidemiologica, clinical and therapeutic aspects of exercise-associated hyponatriemia

    AU - Caimi, Gregorio

    AU - Urso, Caterina

    AU - Brucculeri, Salvatore

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variantof inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasmaconcentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common inendurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which bothathletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, andmanagement. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake,inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to nonosmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures.Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting,confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associatedwith pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis andappropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form toensure a positive outcome.

    AB - Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variantof inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasmaconcentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common inendurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which bothathletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, andmanagement. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake,inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to nonosmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures.Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting,confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associatedwith pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis andappropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form toensure a positive outcome.

    KW - SIADH

    KW - exercise

    KW - hypertonic saline

    KW - hyponatremia

    UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/104501

    M3 - Article

    VL - 3

    SP - 1258

    EP - 1275

    JO - Journal of Clinical Medicine

    JF - Journal of Clinical Medicine

    SN - 2077-0383

    ER -