Photochemistry of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. A DFT study on photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 3-amino- and 3-N-methylamino-5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles

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Abstract

The photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 5-perfluoroalkyl-3-amino(N-alkylamino)-1,2,4-oxadia- zoles have been investigated by DFT calculations and UV-vis spectroscopy. The observed product selectivity depends on the number of hydrogen atoms present in the amino moiety and involves two or three possible routes: (i) ring contraction-ring expansion (RCRE), (ii) internal-cyclization isomerization (ICI), or (iii) C(3)-N(2) migration-nucleophilic attack-cyclization (MNAC). UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the reactants, and vertical excitation energy values, calculated by time dependent DFT, support the involvement of a neutral singlet excited state in the photoexcitation process. The values of the standard free energy of the most stable prototropic tautomers of reactant, products, proposed reaction intermediates, and deprotonated anionic transition states allowed us to rationalize the competition among the three rearrangements, in agreement with chemical trapping experiments, in terms of: (i) the evolution of the excited state toward three stable ground-state intermediates, (ii) tautomeric and deprotonation equilibria occurring in methanol solution for each intermediate, and (iii) relative stabilization of intermediates and transition states in the thermally driven section of the reaction.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)2740-2749
Numero di pagine10
RivistaJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume71
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2006

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Oxadiazoles
Photochemical reactions
Cyclization
Excited states
Discrete Fourier transforms
Reaction intermediates
Deprotonation
Excitation energy
Photoexcitation
Isomerization
Ultraviolet spectroscopy
Ground state
Free energy
Methanol
Hydrogen
Stabilization
Fluorescence
Atoms
Experiments

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Organic Chemistry

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title = "Photochemistry of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. A DFT study on photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 3-amino- and 3-N-methylamino-5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles",
abstract = "The photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 5-perfluoroalkyl-3-amino(N-alkylamino)-1,2,4-oxadia- zoles have been investigated by DFT calculations and UV-vis spectroscopy. The observed product selectivity depends on the number of hydrogen atoms present in the amino moiety and involves two or three possible routes: (i) ring contraction-ring expansion (RCRE), (ii) internal-cyclization isomerization (ICI), or (iii) C(3)-N(2) migration-nucleophilic attack-cyclization (MNAC). UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the reactants, and vertical excitation energy values, calculated by time dependent DFT, support the involvement of a neutral singlet excited state in the photoexcitation process. The values of the standard free energy of the most stable prototropic tautomers of reactant, products, proposed reaction intermediates, and deprotonated anionic transition states allowed us to rationalize the competition among the three rearrangements, in agreement with chemical trapping experiments, in terms of: (i) the evolution of the excited state toward three stable ground-state intermediates, (ii) tautomeric and deprotonation equilibria occurring in methanol solution for each intermediate, and (iii) relative stabilization of intermediates and transition states in the thermally driven section of the reaction.",
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T1 - Photochemistry of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. A DFT study on photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 3-amino- and 3-N-methylamino-5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles

AU - Barone, Giampaolo

AU - Pace, Andrea

AU - Vivona, Nicolo'

AU - Buscemi, Silvestre

AU - Silvestri, Arturo

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 5-perfluoroalkyl-3-amino(N-alkylamino)-1,2,4-oxadia- zoles have been investigated by DFT calculations and UV-vis spectroscopy. The observed product selectivity depends on the number of hydrogen atoms present in the amino moiety and involves two or three possible routes: (i) ring contraction-ring expansion (RCRE), (ii) internal-cyclization isomerization (ICI), or (iii) C(3)-N(2) migration-nucleophilic attack-cyclization (MNAC). UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the reactants, and vertical excitation energy values, calculated by time dependent DFT, support the involvement of a neutral singlet excited state in the photoexcitation process. The values of the standard free energy of the most stable prototropic tautomers of reactant, products, proposed reaction intermediates, and deprotonated anionic transition states allowed us to rationalize the competition among the three rearrangements, in agreement with chemical trapping experiments, in terms of: (i) the evolution of the excited state toward three stable ground-state intermediates, (ii) tautomeric and deprotonation equilibria occurring in methanol solution for each intermediate, and (iii) relative stabilization of intermediates and transition states in the thermally driven section of the reaction.

AB - The photoinduced competitive rearrangements of 5-perfluoroalkyl-3-amino(N-alkylamino)-1,2,4-oxadia- zoles have been investigated by DFT calculations and UV-vis spectroscopy. The observed product selectivity depends on the number of hydrogen atoms present in the amino moiety and involves two or three possible routes: (i) ring contraction-ring expansion (RCRE), (ii) internal-cyclization isomerization (ICI), or (iii) C(3)-N(2) migration-nucleophilic attack-cyclization (MNAC). UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the reactants, and vertical excitation energy values, calculated by time dependent DFT, support the involvement of a neutral singlet excited state in the photoexcitation process. The values of the standard free energy of the most stable prototropic tautomers of reactant, products, proposed reaction intermediates, and deprotonated anionic transition states allowed us to rationalize the competition among the three rearrangements, in agreement with chemical trapping experiments, in terms of: (i) the evolution of the excited state toward three stable ground-state intermediates, (ii) tautomeric and deprotonation equilibria occurring in methanol solution for each intermediate, and (iii) relative stabilization of intermediates and transition states in the thermally driven section of the reaction.

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KW - DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL THEORY

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KW - EXPEDIENT ROUTE

KW - HUMAN 5-HT1B RECEPTOR

KW - LUORINATED HETEROCYCLIC-COMPOUNDS

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