Background: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of smoking and to investigate the permanence of this damage to the oral microcirculation. Material/Methods: We recruited 75 patients and divided them into 3 groups: group 1 was composed of 25 healthy non-smokers, group 2 was composed of 25 healthy current smokers, and group 3 was composed of 25 healthy ex-smokers. Video-capillaroscopic examination was performed on all patients. The video-capillaroscopic investigation was performed on patients in sitting position, always with the same light source, at the same room temperature (23°C), in the morning, with the same operator (GAS), and was repeated many times for every area under investigation. An enlargement of 200× allowed us to explore point-bypoint all the morpho-structural characteristics of the capillaroscopic field. For non-parametric data, we evaluated the visibility of the loops and their position in relation to the surface of the mucosa. The evaluated parametric data were length of capillary loop, diameter of the loop, capillary tortuosity, and capillary density. Results: Our study clearly shows there was no remission of vascular damage, even 13 years after smoking cessation. Conclusions: Our research shows that that the effects of smoking are still visible in ex-smokers, even at 13 years after cessation and also that ex-smokers are still subject to the risk of oral pathologies in the interval of time that we considered.
|Numero di pagine||6|
|Rivista||Medical Science Monitor|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2019|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes