Background: Advanced heart failure (HF) is a progressive disease with high mortality and limited medical therapeutic options. Long-term mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation remain gold-standard treatments for these patients; however, access to these therapies is limited by the advanced age and multiple comorbidities of affected patients, as well as the limited number of donor organs available. Methods: Traditional and new drugs available for the treatment of advanced HF have been researched. Results: To date, the cornerstone for the treatment of patients with advanced HF remains water restriction, intravenous loop diuretic therapy and inotropic support. However, many patients with advanced HF experience loop diuretics resistance and alternative therapeutic strategies to overcome this problem have been developed, including sequential nephron blockade or use of the hypertonic saline solution in combination with high-doses of furosemide. As classic inotropes augment myocardial oxygen consumption, new promising drugs have been introduced, including levosimendan, istaroxime and omecamtiv mecarbil. However, pharmacological agents still remain mainly short-term or palliative options in patients with acute decompensation or excluded from mechanical therapy. Conclusion: Traditional drugs, especially when administered in combination, and new medicaments represent important therapeutic options in advanced HF. However, their impact on prognosis remains unclear. Large trials are necessary to clarify their therapeutic potential and prognostic role in these fragile patients.
|Numero di pagine||13|
|Rivista||CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2020|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery