Occurrence of illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in the South of Italy

Carmelo Massimo Maida, Alida Cosenza, Gaspare Viviani, Francesca Di Gaudio, Donatella Piscionieri, Serena Fanara, Francesca Di Gaudio, Serena Fanara

Risultato della ricerca: Article

14 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Î9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG). The BEG, COC, MOR and THC-COOH were found at the highest concentration in both WWTPs. The Wastewater-based epidemiology calculation for BEG, COC, cannabinoids and THC-COOH was performed. On average, for both plants, population consumes 1.6 and 23.4 dose 1000 inhâ1dayâ1of cocaine and cannabis, respectively. For WWTP-1 negative removals of illicit drugs were observed. For WWTP-2 the following average removal efficiencies were obtained: BEG (77.85%), COC (92.34%), CODEINE (64.75%), MOR (90.16%) and THC-COOH (68.64%).
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)377-385
Numero di pagine9
RivistaChemosphere
Volume198
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

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Street Drugs
Waste Water
Dronabinol
Wastewater treatment
Italy
Cocaine
drug
N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine
Epidemiology
Sicily
Methamphetamine
Cannabinoids
Methadone
Amphetamine
Cannabis
epidemiology
Metabolites
wastewater treatment plant
metabolite
Islands

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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Occurrence of illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in the South of Italy. / Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Cosenza, Alida; Viviani, Gaspare; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Piscionieri, Donatella; Fanara, Serena; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Fanara, Serena.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 198, 2018, pag. 377-385.

Risultato della ricerca: Article

Maida, Carmelo Massimo ; Cosenza, Alida ; Viviani, Gaspare ; Di Gaudio, Francesca ; Piscionieri, Donatella ; Fanara, Serena ; Di Gaudio, Francesca ; Fanara, Serena. / Occurrence of illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in the South of Italy. In: Chemosphere. 2018 ; Vol. 198. pagg. 377-385.
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abstract = "In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-{\^I}9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG). The BEG, COC, MOR and THC-COOH were found at the highest concentration in both WWTPs. The Wastewater-based epidemiology calculation for BEG, COC, cannabinoids and THC-COOH was performed. On average, for both plants, population consumes 1.6 and 23.4 dose 1000 inh{\^a}1day{\^a}1of cocaine and cannabis, respectively. For WWTP-1 negative removals of illicit drugs were observed. For WWTP-2 the following average removal efficiencies were obtained: BEG (77.85{\%}), COC (92.34{\%}), CODEINE (64.75{\%}), MOR (90.16{\%}) and THC-COOH (68.64{\%}).",
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T1 - Occurrence of illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in the South of Italy

AU - Maida, Carmelo Massimo

AU - Cosenza, Alida

AU - Viviani, Gaspare

AU - Di Gaudio, Francesca

AU - Piscionieri, Donatella

AU - Fanara, Serena

AU - Di Gaudio, Francesca

AU - Fanara, Serena

PY - 2018

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N2 - In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Î9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG). The BEG, COC, MOR and THC-COOH were found at the highest concentration in both WWTPs. The Wastewater-based epidemiology calculation for BEG, COC, cannabinoids and THC-COOH was performed. On average, for both plants, population consumes 1.6 and 23.4 dose 1000 inhâ1dayâ1of cocaine and cannabis, respectively. For WWTP-1 negative removals of illicit drugs were observed. For WWTP-2 the following average removal efficiencies were obtained: BEG (77.85%), COC (92.34%), CODEINE (64.75%), MOR (90.16%) and THC-COOH (68.64%).

AB - In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Î9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG). The BEG, COC, MOR and THC-COOH were found at the highest concentration in both WWTPs. The Wastewater-based epidemiology calculation for BEG, COC, cannabinoids and THC-COOH was performed. On average, for both plants, population consumes 1.6 and 23.4 dose 1000 inhâ1dayâ1of cocaine and cannabis, respectively. For WWTP-1 negative removals of illicit drugs were observed. For WWTP-2 the following average removal efficiencies were obtained: BEG (77.85%), COC (92.34%), CODEINE (64.75%), MOR (90.16%) and THC-COOH (68.64%).

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