Nonprecious Copper-Based Transparent Top Electrode via Seed Layer-Assisted Thermal Evaporation for High-Performance Semitransparent n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells

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Abstract

Semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST‐PSCs) are highly attractive for applications in building‐integrated photovoltaics as well as in multijunction tandem devices. To fabricate high‐performance ST‐PSCs, suitable transparent top electrodes are strongly needed. Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer structures have been shown to be promising candidates, though generally based on high‐value metals such as gold or silver, the latter causing also stability issues by reacting with perovskite. Here, a novel DMD transparent electrode based on nonprecious, less‐reactive copper is developed via thermal evaporation and used as a top anode in the fabrication of high‐performance semitransparent n‐i‐p perovskite solar cells, the best device yielding a power conversion efficiency as high as 12.5%. The DMD architecture consists of a gold‐seeded Cu thin film sandwiched between two MoO x dielectric layers. It is demonstrated that Cu self‐aggregation and diffusion into MoOx can be substantially limited by introducing an ultrathin (1.5 nm) Au seed layer, and conductive Cu films as thin as 9.5 nm can be achieved. A fine tuning of the perovskite layer thickness is also carried out to further enhance the device transparency up to a maximum average visible transmittance approaching 25%.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1800688-1-1800688-12
Numero di pagine12
RivistaAdvanced Materials Technologies
Volume4
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2019

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Thermal evaporation
Seed
Copper
Electrodes
Metals
Perovskite
Perovskite solar cells
Silver
Gold
Transparency
Conversion efficiency
Anodes
Multilayers
Tuning
Fabrication
Thin films

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cita questo

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title = "Nonprecious Copper-Based Transparent Top Electrode via Seed Layer-Assisted Thermal Evaporation for High-Performance Semitransparent n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells",
abstract = "Semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST‐PSCs) are highly attractive for applications in building‐integrated photovoltaics as well as in multijunction tandem devices. To fabricate high‐performance ST‐PSCs, suitable transparent top electrodes are strongly needed. Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer structures have been shown to be promising candidates, though generally based on high‐value metals such as gold or silver, the latter causing also stability issues by reacting with perovskite. Here, a novel DMD transparent electrode based on nonprecious, less‐reactive copper is developed via thermal evaporation and used as a top anode in the fabrication of high‐performance semitransparent n‐i‐p perovskite solar cells, the best device yielding a power conversion efficiency as high as 12.5{\%}. The DMD architecture consists of a gold‐seeded Cu thin film sandwiched between two MoO x dielectric layers. It is demonstrated that Cu self‐aggregation and diffusion into MoOx can be substantially limited by introducing an ultrathin (1.5 nm) Au seed layer, and conductive Cu films as thin as 9.5 nm can be achieved. A fine tuning of the perovskite layer thickness is also carried out to further enhance the device transparency up to a maximum average visible transmittance approaching 25{\%}.",
author = "Michelangelo Scopelliti and {Chillura Martino}, {Delia Francesca} and Fabio Principato and Pignataro, {Bruno Giuseppe} and Sebastiano Cataldo and Tiziana Fiore and Giuliana Giuliano",
year = "2019",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "1800688--1--1800688--12",
journal = "Advanced Materials Technologies",
issn = "2365-709X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nonprecious Copper-Based Transparent Top Electrode via Seed Layer-Assisted Thermal Evaporation for High-Performance Semitransparent n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells

AU - Scopelliti, Michelangelo

AU - Chillura Martino, Delia Francesca

AU - Principato, Fabio

AU - Pignataro, Bruno Giuseppe

AU - Cataldo, Sebastiano

AU - Fiore, Tiziana

AU - Giuliano, Giuliana

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST‐PSCs) are highly attractive for applications in building‐integrated photovoltaics as well as in multijunction tandem devices. To fabricate high‐performance ST‐PSCs, suitable transparent top electrodes are strongly needed. Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer structures have been shown to be promising candidates, though generally based on high‐value metals such as gold or silver, the latter causing also stability issues by reacting with perovskite. Here, a novel DMD transparent electrode based on nonprecious, less‐reactive copper is developed via thermal evaporation and used as a top anode in the fabrication of high‐performance semitransparent n‐i‐p perovskite solar cells, the best device yielding a power conversion efficiency as high as 12.5%. The DMD architecture consists of a gold‐seeded Cu thin film sandwiched between two MoO x dielectric layers. It is demonstrated that Cu self‐aggregation and diffusion into MoOx can be substantially limited by introducing an ultrathin (1.5 nm) Au seed layer, and conductive Cu films as thin as 9.5 nm can be achieved. A fine tuning of the perovskite layer thickness is also carried out to further enhance the device transparency up to a maximum average visible transmittance approaching 25%.

AB - Semitransparent perovskite solar cells (ST‐PSCs) are highly attractive for applications in building‐integrated photovoltaics as well as in multijunction tandem devices. To fabricate high‐performance ST‐PSCs, suitable transparent top electrodes are strongly needed. Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer structures have been shown to be promising candidates, though generally based on high‐value metals such as gold or silver, the latter causing also stability issues by reacting with perovskite. Here, a novel DMD transparent electrode based on nonprecious, less‐reactive copper is developed via thermal evaporation and used as a top anode in the fabrication of high‐performance semitransparent n‐i‐p perovskite solar cells, the best device yielding a power conversion efficiency as high as 12.5%. The DMD architecture consists of a gold‐seeded Cu thin film sandwiched between two MoO x dielectric layers. It is demonstrated that Cu self‐aggregation and diffusion into MoOx can be substantially limited by introducing an ultrathin (1.5 nm) Au seed layer, and conductive Cu films as thin as 9.5 nm can be achieved. A fine tuning of the perovskite layer thickness is also carried out to further enhance the device transparency up to a maximum average visible transmittance approaching 25%.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/351469

M3 - Article

VL - 4

SP - 1800688-1-1800688-12

JO - Advanced Materials Technologies

JF - Advanced Materials Technologies

SN - 2365-709X

ER -