Ischemic stroke occurs under a variety of clinical conditions and has different pathogeneses, resulting in necrosis of brain parenchyma. Stroke pathogenesis is characterized by neuroinflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Some of the main processes triggered in the early stages of ischemic damage are the rapid activation of resident inflammatory cells (microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells), inflammatory cytokines, and translocation of intercellular nuclear factors. Inflammation in stroke includes all the processes mentioned above, and it consists of either protective or detrimental effects concerning the 'polarization' of these processes. This polarization comes out from the interaction of all the molecular pathways that regulate genome expression: the epigenetic factors. In recent years, new regulation mechanisms have been cleared, and these include non-coding RNAs, adenosine receptors, and the activity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and microglia. We reviewed how long non-coding RNA and microRNA have emerged as an essential mediator of some neurological diseases. We also clarified that their roles in cerebral ischemic injury may provide novel targets for the treatment of ischemic stroke. To date, we do not have adequate tools to control pathophysiological processes associated with stroke. Our goal is to review the role of non-coding RNAs and innate immune cells (such as microglia and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells) and the possible therapeutic effects of their modulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A better understanding of the mechanisms that influence the 'polarization' of the inflammatory response after the acute event seems to be the way to change the natural history of the disease.
|Numero di pagine||5|
|Rivista||Neural Regeneration Research|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2021|
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