Nanotransducers on printed circuit boards by rational design of high-density, long, thin and untapered ZnO nanowires

Giuseppe Domenico Arrabito, Vito Errico, Weihua Han, Zemin Zhang, Giuseppe Arrabito, Weihua Han, Christian Falconi

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

18 Citazioni (Scopus)


Nanotransducers can offer crucial advantages in comparison with conventional sensors and actuators. However, interfacing and packaging nanostructures into complete electronic systems is very complex. Here we describe a wet chemical method for cointegrating arrays of ZnO nanowires into systems on printed circuit boards (PCBs). First, we deposit on the PCB a MnOOH layer for reproducibly increasing the nanowires density. Afterwards, we numerically demonstrate that the ligand ethylenediamine, at the isoelectric point of the ZnO nanowires tips, can effectively control, at very low concentrations, both zinc speciation and supersaturation in the nutrient solution. Accordingly, we combine potassium chloride and ethylenediamine, produced in situ from a safer precursor (ethanolamine), for concurrently thinning the nanowires (top width around 60 nm) and stabilizing their top faces. Our synergic approach enables the solution growth of ZnO nanowires which are untapered and have high densities (> 8 NWs/µm2) and record length (> 15 µm) and aspect ratio (> 200) for plastic substrates which may not withstand high temperatures. These characteristics permit to simultaneously add the top electrode, package the nanowires, improve their mechanical robustness and connect to the electronic interface by a simple flip chip adhesive bonding procedure. As proofs of concept we describe flexible PCB heaters (electrical to thermal energy conversion) with power densities comparable with state of the art flexible heaters and a wearable piezotronic heartbeat detector comprising both ZnO nanowires (mechanical to electric energy conversion) and electronics on a single flexible PCB. Our results open the way to the cointegration of nanotransducers and electronics on conventional PCBs.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)54-62
Numero di pagine9
RivistaNano Energy
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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