Multiple myeloma-derived exosomes are enriched of amphiregulin (AREG) and activate the epidermal growth factor pathway in the bone microenvironment leading to osteoclastogenesis

Riccardo Alessandro, Stefania Raimondo, Laura Saieva, Marzia Pucci, Emanuela Vicario, Mauro Manno, Samuele Raccosta, Denise Toscani, Emanuela Vicario, Nicola Giuliani

Risultato della ricerca: Article

10 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy associated with osteolytic bone disease. Recently, the role of MM-derived exosomes in the osteoclastogenesis has been demonstrated although the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Since exosomes-derived epidermal growth factor receptor ligands (EGFR) are involved in tumor-associated osteolysis, we hypothesize that the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) can be delivered by MM-derived exosomes and participate in MM-induced osteoclastogenesis. Methods: Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned medium of MM1.S cell line and from bone marrow (BM) plasma samples of MM patients. The murine cell line RAW264.7 and primary human CD14 + cells were used as osteoclast (OC) sources. Results: We found that AREG was specifically enriched in exosomes from MM samples and that exosomes-derived AREG led to the activation of EGFR in pre-OC, as showed by the increase of mRNA expression of its downstream SNAIL in both RAW264.7 and CD14 + cells. The presence of neutralizing anti-AREG monoclonal antibody (mAb) reverted this effect. Consequently, we showed that the effect of MM-derived exosomes on osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by the pre-treatment of exosomes with anti-AREG mAb. In addition, we demonstrated the ability of MM-derived AREG-enriched exosomes to be internalized into human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) blocking osteoblast (OB) differentiation, increasing MM cell adhesion and the release of the pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine interleukin-8 (IL8). Accordingly, anti-AREG mAb inhibited the release of IL8 by MSCs suggesting that both direct and indirect effects are responsible for AREG-enriched exosomes involvement on MM-induced osteoclastogenesis. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate that AREG is packed into MM-derived exosomes and implicated in OC differentiation through an indirect mechanism mediated by OBs.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)2-16
Numero di pagine15
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Hematology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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