Morlacchismo, illirismo, involuzioni esotiche. L’immagine degli slavi del sud nel teatro e nella musica dell’Ottocento in Italia/Morlakizem, ilirizem, eksotična zamotanost. Lik južnega Slovana v italijanskem gledališču in glasbi devetnajstega stoletja

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Abstract

Alberto Fortis’ Viaggio in Dalmazia (Venice, 1774) described for the first time the Morlacks of the interiorof Dalmatia as the true model of a primitive group, whose characteristics became an exotic source of inspirationfor some Italian writers and ballet composers until 1830s. Contemporaneously, the Homer’s paradigm wasintroduced by Melchiorre Cesarotti in the foreword joined to the Italian version of the poems of “Ossian”(1763), and it was in turn transformed by the composer and doctor of Split Giulio Bajamonti. Even thoughpublished in Italian, Bajamonti’s Morlacchismo d’Omero (Venice, 1797) can be considered the first contributionto the romantic Croatian literature. The essay of Bajamonti recognizes in the poetry and music of theMorlacks the authentic national spirit of South Slavic people. At the light of Vico’s Scienza nuova (Naples,1744), the author emphasises Homer’s paradigm aiming at showing close ties between the Morlack’sway of life and the heroes’s behaviour of the Iliad. Further, he compares the Morlack blind guslar, who plays by heart epic verses, to the ancient Greek bard. At the same time, the “Morlackmania” influencend theatrical activities: inparticular some Italian choreographies based on the comedy Gli antichi slavi, ossia le nozze dei morlacchi(1793), staged in Venice by the playwriter Camillo Federici.The figure of the Morlack disappeared around the 1840s, at the time when some intellectuals of Dubrovnikand Venice edited articles and novels on Croats, Bosniaks, Montenegrins and Serbs, in the Italian periodicalLa Favilla. With the aim of creating a unifying language in the Balkan area and the Slavic lands of CentralEurope, writers such as Ivan August Kaznačić, Medo Pucić, Niccolò Tommaseo and Francesco Dall’Ongaropromoted in Trieste the South Slavic literature linked to the unwritten tradition of the guslari’s epic songs.These intellectuals, as supporters of the Illyrian Movement promoted by Ljudevit Gaj, exalted the South Slavicepic rejecting the well-known Italian writers and the “Gothic” literature of Germany and Great Britain (seethe fiftheen Studi sugli slavi of Kaznačić and Pucić printed from 1842 to 1844) The Romantic pattern of aSlavic prototype substituted the previous wild Morlack but not his culture. This phenomenon involved someItalian composers of the 1860s, who wrote new operas on this topic, always characterizing the South Slavpeople as primitive, honest, hospitable and vindictive. Unfortunately, with the exception of two Illyrian an-thems inserted by Nikola Strmić (Niccolò de Stermich) in his La madre slava (1865), the scenes of “couleurlocale” in the operas L’uscocco (Francesco Petrocini, 1858), La vendetta slava (Pietro Platania, 1865), and Imorlacchi (Giuseppe Sapio, 1878) are not provided of authentic tunes gathered from Balkan regions. On thecontrary, as a symbol of revenge and otherness, the literary topos of blood feud appears in the aforementionedFortis’s diary, in the novels of Francesco Dall’Ongaro, and in a ballad of Giovanni Prati, significantly titledLa vendetta slava, from which Pietro Platania drew the title and the names of main characters of his ownopera.
Lingua originaleItalian
Titolo della pubblicazione ospiteTRST: UMETNOSTNI IZRAZ OB NACIONALNEM VPRAŠANJU. Glasba, likovna in besedna umetnost ob slovensko-italijanski meji v drugi polovici XIX. stoletja do prihoda fašizma TRIESTE: L'ESPRESSIONE ARTISTICA E LA QUESTIONE NAZIONALE. La musica, le arti figurative e le lettere nella seconda metà dell’ Ottocento al confine italo-sloveno fino all'avvento del fascismo
Pagine363-429
Numero di pagine67
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

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