Recent studies have shown that neurologic inflammation may both precipitate and sustain seizures, suggesting that inflammation may be involved not only in epileptogenesis but also in determining the drug-resistant profile. Extensive literature data during these last years have identified a number of inflammatory markers involved in these processes of "neuroimmunoinflammation" in epilepsy, with key roles for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as: IL-6, IL-17 and IL-17 Receptor (IL-17R) axis, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor Alpha (TNF-α) and Transforming-Growth-Factor Beta (TGF-β), all responsible for the induction of processes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and inflammation of the Central Nervous System (CNS) itself. Nevertheless, many of these inflammatory biomarkers have also been implicated in the pathophysiologic process of other neurological diseases. Future studies will be needed to identify the disease-specific biomarkers in order to distinguish epilepsies from other neurological diseases, as well as recognize different epileptic semiology. In this context, biological markers of BBB disruption, as well as those reflecting its integrity, can be useful tools to determine the pathological process of a variety of neurological diseases. However; how these molecules may help in the diagnosis and prognostication of epileptic disorders remains yet to be determined. Herein, authors present an extensive literature review on the involvement of both, systemic and neuronal immune systems, in the early onset of epileptic encephalopathy.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Rivista||Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2019|
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