Molecular Determinants of Malignant Brain Cancers: From Intracellular Alterations to Invasion Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles

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Abstract

Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells. Most of the effects on the surrounding environment are probably exerted through the release of a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain many different classes of molecules, from genetic material to defined species of lipids and enzymes. EV-associated molecules can be either released into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and/or transferred to neighboring cells: as a consequence, both deep modifications of the recipient cell phenotype and digestion of ECM components are obtained, thus causing cancer propagation, as well as a general brain dysfunction. In this review, we first analyze the main intracellular and extracellular transformations required for glioma cell invasion into the brain parenchyma; then we discuss how these events may be attributed, at least in part, to EVs that, like the pawns of a dramatic chess game with cancer, open the way to the tumor cells themselves.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Numero di pagine0
RivistaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume18 (12)
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2017

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determinants
Brain Neoplasms
brain
Brain
cancer
cells
Extracellular Matrix
Molecules
Glioma
Blood vessels
Metabolism
Neoplasms
Lipids
matrices
Tumors
Enzymes
Cells
phenotype
blood vessels
games

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cita questo

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title = "Molecular Determinants of Malignant Brain Cancers: From Intracellular Alterations to Invasion Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles",
abstract = "Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells. Most of the effects on the surrounding environment are probably exerted through the release of a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain many different classes of molecules, from genetic material to defined species of lipids and enzymes. EV-associated molecules can be either released into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and/or transferred to neighboring cells: as a consequence, both deep modifications of the recipient cell phenotype and digestion of ECM components are obtained, thus causing cancer propagation, as well as a general brain dysfunction. In this review, we first analyze the main intracellular and extracellular transformations required for glioma cell invasion into the brain parenchyma; then we discuss how these events may be attributed, at least in part, to EVs that, like the pawns of a dramatic chess game with cancer, open the way to the tumor cells themselves.",
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T1 - Molecular Determinants of Malignant Brain Cancers: From Intracellular Alterations to Invasion Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles

AU - Di Liegro, Italia

AU - Schiera, Gabriella

AU - Di Liegro, Carlo Maria

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells. Most of the effects on the surrounding environment are probably exerted through the release of a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain many different classes of molecules, from genetic material to defined species of lipids and enzymes. EV-associated molecules can be either released into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and/or transferred to neighboring cells: as a consequence, both deep modifications of the recipient cell phenotype and digestion of ECM components are obtained, thus causing cancer propagation, as well as a general brain dysfunction. In this review, we first analyze the main intracellular and extracellular transformations required for glioma cell invasion into the brain parenchyma; then we discuss how these events may be attributed, at least in part, to EVs that, like the pawns of a dramatic chess game with cancer, open the way to the tumor cells themselves.

AB - Malignant glioma cells invade the surrounding brain parenchyma, by migrating along the blood vessels, thus promoting cancer growth. The biological bases of these activities are grounded in profound alterations of the metabolism and the structural organization of the cells, which consequently acquire the ability to modify the surrounding microenvironment, by altering the extracellular matrix and affecting the properties of the other cells present in the brain, such as normal glial-, endothelial- and immune-cells. Most of the effects on the surrounding environment are probably exerted through the release of a variety of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain many different classes of molecules, from genetic material to defined species of lipids and enzymes. EV-associated molecules can be either released into the extracellular matrix (ECM) and/or transferred to neighboring cells: as a consequence, both deep modifications of the recipient cell phenotype and digestion of ECM components are obtained, thus causing cancer propagation, as well as a general brain dysfunction. In this review, we first analyze the main intracellular and extracellular transformations required for glioma cell invasion into the brain parenchyma; then we discuss how these events may be attributed, at least in part, to EVs that, like the pawns of a dramatic chess game with cancer, open the way to the tumor cells themselves.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/253512

UR - http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/12/2774

M3 - Article

VL - 18 (12)

JO - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

SN - 1661-6596

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