Mitomycin C (MMC) intravesical therapy for "superficial" papillary bladder tumors was firstly introduced in the early seventies with promising results. In the following years, several pharmacokinetic studies investigated its mechanism of action to optimize the intravesical administration. Numerous studies confirmed thereafter both the ablative and the prophylactic efficacy and the low toxicity of MMC when intravesically given. In 1984, a complete response rate of 42% in 60 patients not responsive to thiotepa was reported with intravesical MMC at the dose of 40 mg diluted in 40 ml for 8 weeks. In the following decades, many large randomized studies showed the benefit of intravesical prophylaxis with MMC versus transurethral resection (TUR) alone. Since 2002, the role of adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and of an early MMC instillation in preventing recurrence compared with TUR alone has been confirmed by large meta-analyses and stated by the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. The need for further intravesical chemotherapy after the early instillation in patients at intermediate-high risk of recurrence has been proved by several trials. Although intravesical Bacillus Calmette-GuerÃ¬n (BCG) is considered the best choice for high-risk patients and MMC for the low-risk group, both MMC and BCG can be given to prevent recurrence in intermediate-risk patients. However, the higher efficacy of BCG over MMC is evident only if maintenance regimen is administered. Despite its proven efficacy, immediate intravesical MMC is not yet fully entered in common clinical practice and efforts should be made by the urologists to optimize its adoption.
|Numero di pagine||5|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2016|
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