In the mdx mice model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), mild endurance exercise training positively affected limb skeletal muscles, whereas few and controversial data exist on the effects of training on the diaphragm. The diaphragm was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) and wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) and during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days (training: 5 d/wk for 6 weeks), diaphragm muscle morphology and Cx39 protein were assessed. In addition, tissue levels of the chaperonins Hsp60 and Hsp70 and the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) were measured in diaphragm, gastrocnemius, and quadriceps in each experimental group at all time points. Although morphological analysis showed unchanged total area of necrosis/regeneration in the diaphragm after training, there was a trend for larger areas of regeneration than necrosis in the diaphragm of mdx-EX compared to mdx-SD mice. However, the levels of Cx39, a protein associated with active regeneration in damaged muscle, were similar in the diaphragm of mdx-EX and mdx-SD mice. Hsp60 significantly decreased at 45 days in the diaphragm, but not in limb muscles, in both trained and sedentary mdx compared to WT mice. In limb muscles, but not in the diaphragm, Hsp70 and NF-kB p65 levels were increased in mdx mice irrespective of training at 30 and 45 days. Therefore, the diaphragm of mdx mice showed little inflammatory and stress responses over time, and appeared hardly affected by mild endurance training. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology