Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. The possible synergistic effect of poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) and other risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) such as hypertension, cholesterol, ever smoker, BMI> 25, diabetes, has not been deeply studied. Design Case-control study. Methods: Patients with first AMI and controls from four tertiary referral Italian centers were screened for enrolment. Dietary information was collected through a questionnaire and a MD adherence score was calculated. Physical activity and smoking habits were also registered. The Synergy Index was calculated according to Rothman. Results: 127 cases and 173 controls were enrolled. The analysis was conducted using a dichotomous variable for the MD score with values ≥7 representing good adherence. Multivariate analysis showed the following variables associated to AMI: ever smoker (OR = 2.08), diabetes (OR = 1.42), hypertension (OR = 2.08), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 2.47), BMI> 25 (OR = 1.99), while a protective effect emerged both in subjects scoring > 7 on the MD score (OR = 0.55) and in subjects resident of Southern Italy (OR = 0.38). A synergistic effect does exist between poor adherence to the MD and the following risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, BMI >25, diabetes and being a resident in central and northern Italy. Conclusion: Synergy between heart disease risk factors and MD underlines the need to enlarge the list of known modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to include and promote adherence to Mediterranean dietary habits.
|Numero di pagine||13|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2018|