The optimization of design and operation of combined heat, cooling and power systems usually leads to select differentplant lay-outs and size of components, depending on the adopted optimization criterion (maximum profit or energy savingor minimum environmental impact). This occurs when the current energy prices and the normative provisions supportingcogeneration are not able to coincide with the specific customer’s interest and the overall ‘‘social interest’’ for a reduction inenergy consumption and in pollutants’ emissions. At EU level, polygeneration is considered to have a large potential forresidential and commercial buildings district network, for the tertiary sector and for industrial applications. In such applications,it is often convenient to integrate the trigeneration system with a reversible heat pump, because of a low ratiobetween electric demand and that for heating and cooling. In this paper, the design and operation of such hybrid systemsis discussed. The results achievable through different operation modes are compared and, with reference to a 600-roomshotel and a 300-beds hospital in Italy, the effects on plant design from an hour-by-hour optimization of plant operationare assessed. Finally, the need for a flexible support system for cogeneration plants is put into evidence and some criteriaare listed for an effective regulation.
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2005|