Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions

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Abstract

The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N2O and NH3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH3 emissions. Total N2O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N2O-N ha−1, respectively; P < 0.01). In addition, DEA was higher in NT compared to that in CT (74.6 vs 18.6 μg N2O-N kg−1 h−1; P < 0.01). The higher N2O emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N2O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N2O emissions compared to CT.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)350-359
Numero di pagine10
RivistaScience of the Total Environment
Volume639
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2018

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Nitrous Oxide
zero tillage
Organic carbon
nitrous oxide
tillage
Rain
organic carbon
Soils
Oxides
Crops
soil
Enzyme activity
Genes
pore space
Water
bulk density
enzyme activity
Gas emissions
Ammonia
Agriculture

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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@article{e8f76aa4e2e144d587355249033c5f99,
title = "Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions",
abstract = "The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N2O and NH3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23{\%}. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH3 emissions. Total N2O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N2O-N ha−1, respectively; P < 0.01). In addition, DEA was higher in NT compared to that in CT (74.6 vs 18.6 μg N2O-N kg−1 h−1; P < 0.01). The higher N2O emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96{\%} higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154{\%} and 84{\%} higher in NT than that in CT). The total N2O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N2O emissions compared to CT.",
author = "Giuseppe Badagliacca and Gaetano Amato and Dario Giambalvo and Luigi Badalucco and Paolo Ruisi and Laudicina, {Vito Armando} and Giuseppe Badagliacca and Emilio Ben{\'i}tez",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
volume = "639",
pages = "350--359",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions

AU - Badagliacca, Giuseppe

AU - Amato, Gaetano

AU - Giambalvo, Dario

AU - Badalucco, Luigi

AU - Ruisi, Paolo

AU - Laudicina, Vito Armando

AU - Badagliacca, Giuseppe

AU - Benítez, Emilio

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N2O and NH3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH3 emissions. Total N2O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N2O-N ha−1, respectively; P < 0.01). In addition, DEA was higher in NT compared to that in CT (74.6 vs 18.6 μg N2O-N kg−1 h−1; P < 0.01). The higher N2O emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N2O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N2O emissions compared to CT.

AB - The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N2O and NH3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH3 emissions. Total N2O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N2O-N ha−1, respectively; P < 0.01). In addition, DEA was higher in NT compared to that in CT (74.6 vs 18.6 μg N2O-N kg−1 h−1; P < 0.01). The higher N2O emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N2O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N2O emissions compared to CT.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/293133

M3 - Article

VL - 639

SP - 350

EP - 359

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -