Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are lipid chaperones assisting in the trafficking of long-chain fatty acids with functions in various cell compartments, including oxidation, signaling, gene-transcription regulation, and storage. The various known FABP isoforms display distinctive tissue distribution, but some are active in more than one tissue. Quantitative and/or qualitative changes of FABPs are associated with pathological conditions. Increased circulating levels of FABPs are biomarkers of disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Deregulated expression and malfunction of FABPs can result from genetic alterations or posttranslational modifications and can be pathogenic. We have assembled the disorders with abnormal FABPs as chaperonopathies in a distinct nosological entity. This entity is similar but separate from that encompassing the chaperonopathies pertaining to protein chaperones. In this review, we discuss the role of FABPs in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurological diseases. We highlight the opportunities for improving diagnosis and treatment that open by encompassing all these pathological conditions within of a coherent nosological group, focusing on abnormal lipid chaperones as biomarkers of disease and etiological-pathogenic factors.