Life cycle assessment of storage systems: the case study of a sodium/nickel chloride battery

Sonia Longo, Maurizio Cellura, Marco Ferraro, Vincenzo Antonucci

Risultato della ricerca: Article

49 Citazioni (Scopus)


This study assesses the energy and environmental impacts of sodium/nickel chloride batteries, one of theemerging battery technologies for energy storage and smart grids.The analysis was conducted using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology according to the standardsof the ISO 14040 series. The study system was one sodium/nickel cell battery providing electric storagefor a photovoltaic system, and the manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life steps were analysed.The results indicated that the operation step has the greatest energy impact (55e70% of the total), withthe manufacturing step, particularly cell manufacturing, contributing the greatest environmental impact(>60% of the total).This paper makes two original contributions: 1) it presents one of the first LCA analyses of sodium/nickel chloride batteries with the aim of identifying the energy and environmental impacts of thistechnology; 2) it provides a set of energy and environmental outcomes identifying the “hot spots” of theselected technology that must be carefully considered to upgrade the current efficiency and sustainabilityof electric storage device standards.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)337-346
Numero di pagine10
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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