Background: The misuse of antibiotics is one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. Paediatric patients are highly involved in this issue, as they are those who receive the largest amount of prescriptions of these drugs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the general knowledge regarding the use of antibiotics, as well as the attitudes related to the administration of these drugs to children, amongst parents of children in the paediatric age-group. Methods: In 2014, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst parents of children aged 0-14. A questionnaire made up of 33 items was administered in waiting rooms of outpatient departments. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed, in order to assess the potential predictors of a better knowledge about antibiotics. Results: A total of 1247 parents took part to the survey. Around 33% of the samples declared that antibiotics are useful for viral infections, 20.6% that antibiotics are useful for every kind of pain and inflammation, while 14% of the parents stated that they stop giving antibiotics to their children when they start feeling better. Multivariable models showed that males, unemployed and those with lower levels of education are less prone to answer correctly to the questions about antibiotics. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that parents have a lack of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotics, which results in bad habits and inappropriate attitudes when it comes to giving antibiotics to their children. Attention should be particularly focused on disadvantaged parents.