Investigation and control of a Norovirus outbreak of probable waterborne transmission through a municipal groundwater system.

Giovanni Giammanco, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Giuseppe Calamusa, Francesco Vitale, Caterina Mammina, Giuseppa Purpari, Simona De Grazia, Claudio Costantino, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Gaetano Geraci, Girolama Bosco, Agata Petralia, Vittorio Spoto, Giusi Macaluso, Giuseppa Purpari, Franco M. Ruggeri, Annalisa Guercio

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

19 Citazioni (Scopus)


During March 2011 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in Santo Stefano di Quisquina, Agrigento, Sicily, Italy. Within two weeks 156 cases were identified among the 4,965 people living in the municipality. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterize the outbreak and target the control measures. A case was defined as a person developing diarrhea or vomiting during February 27-March 13, 2011. Stool specimens were collected from 12 cases. Norovirus (NoV) genotype GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was identified in stool samples from 11 of 12 cases tested (91.7%). Epidemiological investigations suggested a possible association with municipal drinking water consumption. Water samples from the public water system were tested for NoV and a variety of genotypes were detected during the first 3 months of surveillance, including GII.4 strains belonging to different variants from that involved in the gastroenteritis outbreak. Contamination of the well and springs supplying the public water network was eventually thought to be the source of the NoV contamination.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)452-464
Numero di pagine13
RivistaJournal of Water and Health
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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