Immunosenescence and its hallmarks: How to oppose aging strategically? A review of potential options for therapeutic intervention

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Abstract

Aging is accompanied by remodeling of the immune system. With time, this leads to a decline in immune efficacy, resulting in increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, diminished responses to vaccination, and a susceptibility to age-related inflammatory diseases. An age-associated immune alteration, extensively reported in previous studies, is the reduction in the number of peripheral blood naive cells, with a relative increase in the frequency of memory cells. These two alterations, together with inflamm-aging, are considered the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Because aging is a plastic process, it is influenced by both nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, the role of nutrition and of immunomodulation in immunosenescence is discussed, due to the multifactorial influence on these hallmarks. The close connection between nutrition, intake of bioactive nutrients and supplements, immune function, and inflammation demonstrate the key role of dietary strategies as regulators of immune response and inflammatory status, hence as possible modulators of the rate of immunosenescence. In addition, potential options for therapeutic intervention are clarified. In particular, the use of interleukin-7 as growth factor for naive T cells, the function of checkpoint inhibitors in improving T cell responses during aging and, the potential of drugs that inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases and their interaction with nutrient signaling pathways are discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the inclusion of appropriate combinations of toll-like receptor agonists may enhance the efficacy of vaccination in older adults.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Numero di pagine0
RivistaFrontiers in Immunology
Volume10
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2019

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Vaccination
Food
Interleukin-7
Immunomodulation
Toll-Like Receptors
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Interleukin-2
Communicable Diseases
Immune System
Blood Cells
Therapeutics
Pharmacology
Inflammation
T-Lymphocytes
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Immunosenescence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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title = "Immunosenescence and its hallmarks: How to oppose aging strategically? A review of potential options for therapeutic intervention",
abstract = "Aging is accompanied by remodeling of the immune system. With time, this leads to a decline in immune efficacy, resulting in increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, diminished responses to vaccination, and a susceptibility to age-related inflammatory diseases. An age-associated immune alteration, extensively reported in previous studies, is the reduction in the number of peripheral blood naive cells, with a relative increase in the frequency of memory cells. These two alterations, together with inflamm-aging, are considered the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Because aging is a plastic process, it is influenced by both nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, the role of nutrition and of immunomodulation in immunosenescence is discussed, due to the multifactorial influence on these hallmarks. The close connection between nutrition, intake of bioactive nutrients and supplements, immune function, and inflammation demonstrate the key role of dietary strategies as regulators of immune response and inflammatory status, hence as possible modulators of the rate of immunosenescence. In addition, potential options for therapeutic intervention are clarified. In particular, the use of interleukin-7 as growth factor for naive T cells, the function of checkpoint inhibitors in improving T cell responses during aging and, the potential of drugs that inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases and their interaction with nutrient signaling pathways are discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the inclusion of appropriate combinations of toll-like receptor agonists may enhance the efficacy of vaccination in older adults.",
author = "Gambino, {Caterina Maria} and Giulia Accardi and Calogero Caruso and Ligotti, {Mattia Emanuela} and Anna Aiello and Giuseppina Candore and Sergio Davinelli and Farzin Farzaneh and Nahid Zareian",
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T1 - Immunosenescence and its hallmarks: How to oppose aging strategically? A review of potential options for therapeutic intervention

AU - Gambino, Caterina Maria

AU - Accardi, Giulia

AU - Caruso, Calogero

AU - Ligotti, Mattia Emanuela

AU - Aiello, Anna

AU - Candore, Giuseppina

AU - Davinelli, Sergio

AU - Farzaneh, Farzin

AU - Zareian, Nahid

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Aging is accompanied by remodeling of the immune system. With time, this leads to a decline in immune efficacy, resulting in increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, diminished responses to vaccination, and a susceptibility to age-related inflammatory diseases. An age-associated immune alteration, extensively reported in previous studies, is the reduction in the number of peripheral blood naive cells, with a relative increase in the frequency of memory cells. These two alterations, together with inflamm-aging, are considered the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Because aging is a plastic process, it is influenced by both nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, the role of nutrition and of immunomodulation in immunosenescence is discussed, due to the multifactorial influence on these hallmarks. The close connection between nutrition, intake of bioactive nutrients and supplements, immune function, and inflammation demonstrate the key role of dietary strategies as regulators of immune response and inflammatory status, hence as possible modulators of the rate of immunosenescence. In addition, potential options for therapeutic intervention are clarified. In particular, the use of interleukin-7 as growth factor for naive T cells, the function of checkpoint inhibitors in improving T cell responses during aging and, the potential of drugs that inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases and their interaction with nutrient signaling pathways are discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the inclusion of appropriate combinations of toll-like receptor agonists may enhance the efficacy of vaccination in older adults.

AB - Aging is accompanied by remodeling of the immune system. With time, this leads to a decline in immune efficacy, resulting in increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, diminished responses to vaccination, and a susceptibility to age-related inflammatory diseases. An age-associated immune alteration, extensively reported in previous studies, is the reduction in the number of peripheral blood naive cells, with a relative increase in the frequency of memory cells. These two alterations, together with inflamm-aging, are considered the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Because aging is a plastic process, it is influenced by both nutritional and pharmacological interventions. Therefore, the role of nutrition and of immunomodulation in immunosenescence is discussed, due to the multifactorial influence on these hallmarks. The close connection between nutrition, intake of bioactive nutrients and supplements, immune function, and inflammation demonstrate the key role of dietary strategies as regulators of immune response and inflammatory status, hence as possible modulators of the rate of immunosenescence. In addition, potential options for therapeutic intervention are clarified. In particular, the use of interleukin-7 as growth factor for naive T cells, the function of checkpoint inhibitors in improving T cell responses during aging and, the potential of drugs that inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases and their interaction with nutrient signaling pathways are discussed. Finally, it is suggested that the inclusion of appropriate combinations of toll-like receptor agonists may enhance the efficacy of vaccination in older adults.

UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/383933

UR - https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/immunology#

M3 - Article

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JO - Frontiers in Immunology

JF - Frontiers in Immunology

SN - 1664-3224

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