I paesaggi agrari tradizionali dell’albero: il significato moderno di forme d’uso del suolo del passato

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Abstract

Italy represents one of the most suitableenvironment for fruit trees and vines and since the originof their domestication and introduction in extremelyvarying environments, depending on the speciesadaptability and local culture, a complex mosaic oflandscapes has been originated by Nature, farmers orgardeners. In the study of the landscape it must beconsidered that the relationship between fruit trees orvines and landscapes represents a precious aspect ofthe Italian culture and has been studied by History,represented in Art and Literature, analyzed by sciencelike Architecture and Agronomy, but at first has beencreated by Agriculture. Owing to the evolution of therelationship land and farmers, the development ofagricultural practices, the change of marked requirementsand objectives, different agricultural landscapeshave been created, each having an uniquemeaning and functions. Nonetheless, the physiognomyof tree cropping systems has changed rapidlystarting from half of the past century because of theintroduction of new genetic resources, the change inthe meaning of the product’s quality, the industrializationof the agronomic technique. These recent developmentshave turned out in loss of landscape diversity,biodiversity erosion, environment resources depletion.The actual physiognomy of the Italian countryside,from the plan to the most represented mountainareas, is characterized by modern and traditional agriculturallandscapes, not even distinguished, frequentlyoverlaid. They represent the “forms” of the today’sarboriculture visible in the historic and contemporarygardens, in the remnants of the coltura promiscua, inthe polycultural growing systems, as well as in thespecialized orchards. The contemporary landscape offruit trees and vines witnesses its history, charactersand functions particularly in terms of biological andenvironmental diversity maintenance. This review isfocused on the traditional fruit tree and vine’s landscapesstill well rooted in the Italian agricultural landscape,but differently conserved, managed and perceived.The aim of the historical excursus is to gothrough their development phases and to underlinethe changing functions. A survey of the multifunctionalityrecognisable in the traditional agricultural landscape,in particular their role in the preservation ofenvironmental resources, agro-ecosystems functionality,landscape diversity and cultural memory justifiesthe interest in the preservation and valorisation ofthese productive landscapes and of the traditionalagricultural techniques, thank to which they are maintained.The preserving strategies adopted in theEuropean countries as well as the modern studyapproaches based on multidisciplinary methodologiesare also analysed.
Lingua originaleItalian
pagine (da-a)21-38
Numero di pagine17
RivistaITALUS HORTUS
Volume18
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2011

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