The correct concentration of oxygen in all tissues is a hallmark of cellular wellness, and the negative regulation of oxygen homeostasis is able to affect the cells and tissues of the whole organism. The cellular response to hypoxia is characterized by the activation of multiple genes involved in many biological processes. Among them, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) represents the master regulator of the hypoxia response. The active heterodimeric complex HIF α/β, binding to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs), determines the induction of at least 100 target genes to restore tissue homeostasis. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that hypoxia signaling can act by generating contrasting responses in cells and tissues. Here, this dual and controversial role of hypoxia and the HIF signaling pathway is discussed, with particular reference to the effects induced on the complex activities of the immune system and on mechanisms determining cell and tissue responses after an injury in both acute and chronic human diseases related to the heart, lung, liver, and kidney.
|Numero di pagine||17|
|Rivista||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2020|
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