Hypercalcified sponges from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) reefs of Sicily

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Abstract

The sponge-dominated Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) reefs of Sicily yielded the most abundanthypercalcified sponge taxa compared with other time equivalent reefs in the world. Chambered sponges (“Sphinctozoa”) are the most abundant group among the hypercalcified sponges.All together almost 150 species of hypercalcified sponges (including sphinctozoans, inozoans, chaetetids, disjectoporids and spongiomorphids) were recognized in the Norian-Rhaetian reefs occurring in different localities in Sicily. 93 species (30 new, 28 as sp. indet.) of sphinctozoans, belonging to 18 families (2 new: Polytubithalamiidae, Globucatenulaiidae) and 35 genera (4 new: Globucatenula, Polytubithalamia, Rostrospongia, Semiuvanella), are described in this paper.Seven genera were established as new genera in previous publications from the reefs of Sicily. These genera are not known from other Norian-Rhaetian reef localities. Therefore 11 genera (about 30%) of sphinctozoan sponges of Sicily are endemic. Among the species level 21 species of the described 93 species in this paper were described in previous publications and are not known from other time equivalet reefs on the word. Therefore 51 species (about 55%) of sphinctozoan species of Sicily are endemic. Unchambered group (including: inozoids, disjectoporids and spongiomorphids) are represented by 8 families (one new: Noritubispongiidae), 23 genera (8 new: Incertuspongia, Irregulaspongia, Multilaticanalia, Noritubispongia, Pustulispongia, Tenuipariespongia, Trinakrispongia, Vesicotubispongia, 2 ind.) and 42 species (22 new, 10 as sp.).From 8 new genera of inozoan sponge 7 genera, occurring in reefs of Sicily are endemic. Only the genus Noritubispongia occurs also in reefs carbonates of Pelepones, Greece (see description in the text). Therefore about 30% of inozoans are endemic in the reefs of Sicily. From 42 species of the inozans, described in this paper 21 (50%) species seem to be endemic in reefs of Sicily (Noritubispongia chaetetiformis occurs also in Greece).Chaetetid sponges were recognized with 10 genera (2 new: Conochaetetes, Magnicanalifera) and 15 species (3 new: Atrochaetetes conicus n. sp., Conochaetetes magnitubus n. gen., n. sp., Magnicanalifera lupensis n. gen., n. sp.). Chaetetids in the studied material, described as new in this paper, seem to be an endemic fauna.Only one hexactinellid sponge (gen. et sp. ind.) was found in one thin-section in the collection.The life-style and the role of described sponges in Triassic reefs and their diversity are discussed and compared with some other time equivalent deposit reefs on the world.
Lingua originaleEnglish
EditoreMuseo Geologico "G.G. Gemmellaro"
Numero di pagine300
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2015

Serie di pubblicazioni

NomeQUADERNI DEL MUSEO GEOLOGICO G. G. GEMMELLARO

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    Abate, B., & Di Stefano, P. (2015). Hypercalcified sponges from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) reefs of Sicily. (QUADERNI DEL MUSEO GEOLOGICO G. G. GEMMELLARO). Museo Geologico "G.G. Gemmellaro".