Background and aims The maintenance of clinically recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) through a statin therapy is a gold standard in the management of patients with dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when LDL-C levels are at or below clinically recommended target levels, residual cardiovascular (CV) risk still remains. Therefore, assessing lipoproteins beyond LDL-C in managing CV risk is imperative. Methods A working group of clinical experts have assessed the role of lipoproteins other than LDL-C in identifying the CV risk in patients with dyslipidaemia and CVD and in the management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with a number of other diseases. The recommendations, in line with the European guidelines, are presented. Results A thorough evaluation of clinical data by the expert working group resulted in recommendations to consider non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), remnant cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) as biomarkers of residual CV risk in patients with CVD. Elevated Lp(a) levels were also suggested to be a causal factor. The experts highlighted the significance of non-HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) in atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH). The working group recommended combinatorial therapeutic approaches in high-risk patients, including agents impacting on TG and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Evaluation of a lipoprotein landscape when LDL-C levels remain low strongly supports the role of non-HDL-C, Lp(a) and TGs in identifying patients with increased residual risk of CV and in selecting their treatment strategy.
|Numero di pagine||9|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Published - 2017|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Averna, M., Ogura, M., Suppressa, P., Calabrò, P., Postadzhiyan, A., Cercek, M., Stroes, E., & Averna, M. (2017). How to assess and manage cardiovascular risk associated with lipid alterations beyond LDL. Atherosclerosis Supplements, 26, 16-24.