How to assess and manage cardiovascular risk associated with lipid alterations beyond LDL

Maurizio Averna, Masatsune Ogura, Patrizia Suppressa, Paolo Calabrò, Arman Postadzhiyan, Miha Cercek, Erik Stroes, Maurizio Averna

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

17 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background and aims The maintenance of clinically recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) through a statin therapy is a gold standard in the management of patients with dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when LDL-C levels are at or below clinically recommended target levels, residual cardiovascular (CV) risk still remains. Therefore, assessing lipoproteins beyond LDL-C in managing CV risk is imperative. Methods A working group of clinical experts have assessed the role of lipoproteins other than LDL-C in identifying the CV risk in patients with dyslipidaemia and CVD and in the management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with a number of other diseases. The recommendations, in line with the European guidelines, are presented. Results A thorough evaluation of clinical data by the expert working group resulted in recommendations to consider non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), remnant cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) as biomarkers of residual CV risk in patients with CVD. Elevated Lp(a) levels were also suggested to be a causal factor. The experts highlighted the significance of non-HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) in atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH). The working group recommended combinatorial therapeutic approaches in high-risk patients, including agents impacting on TG and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Evaluation of a lipoprotein landscape when LDL-C levels remain low strongly supports the role of non-HDL-C, Lp(a) and TGs in identifying patients with increased residual risk of CV and in selecting their treatment strategy.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)16-24
Numero di pagine9
RivistaAtherosclerosis Supplements
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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