Hirayama disease: Nosological classification and neuroimaging clues for diagnosis

Filippo Brighina, Roberto Cannella, Antonino Lupica, Vincenzo Di Stefano, Valentina Virzì, Marcello Romano, Roberto Cannella, Salvatore Iacono, Valentina Virzi

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

1 Citazioni (Scopus)


Hirayama disease (HD) is a rare, benign, and nonprogressive motor neuron disease (MND) affecting the upper limbs. It usually presents with weakness and amyotrophy in a single upper extremity with an insidious onset between adolescence and the third decade of life. Since its description in 1959, HD has been known under several names and eponyms in Europe and in Asian countries probably due to its heterogeneous clinical features. Thus, the unclear nosological classification makes challenging the differential diagnosis between HD and other neuromuscular conditions, such as MNDs. However, apart from the nosological difficulties and the lack of evidence-based guideline for diagnosis, the neuroimaging is the mainstay for the diagnosis of HD. Indeed, the specific findings on cervical flexion MRI usually lead to a prompt diagnosis. Here, we reviewed the nosological classifications of HD and its neuroimaging features. Also, we report a case of a 18-year-old boy who presented to our Clinic complaining of muscle weakness of the left distal upper limb without other neurological signs. The cervical MRI, in the neutral position, revealed a high T2 signal intensity in the C5-C7 cervical myelomeres as well as the loss of cervical lordosis, whereas, during neck flexion, it showed the anterior displacement of the posterior dura ad the post-gadolinium T1-weighted imaging enhancement of the posterior epidural plexus. These findings are typical for HD allowing the diagnosis as well as the differential diagnosis from other neuromuscular diseases.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-8
Numero di pagine8
RivistaJournal of Neuroimaging
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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