Gastrointestinal tumors: Phytochemical and drug combinations targeting the hallmarks of cancer

Marco Giammanco, Emanuele Salvatore Scarpa, Mauro Magnani

Risultato della ricerca: Articlepeer review

1 Citazioni (Scopus)


Cancer is a worldwide burden resulting in millions of deaths each year. In particular, gastrointestinal tumors are life-threatening malignancies and one of the leading reasons for death in developed countries. Phytochemicals can be found in grains, vegetables, fruits and several foods. Many phytochemicals, such as curcumin, genistein, luteolin, vitexin-2-O-xyloside, avenanthramides, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, sulforaphane, piperine and thymoquinone have been used in combination with different chemotherapeutic agents for their synergistic anticancer effects against various forms of cancer. In this review, we describe the antitumor properties and biological effects of combinations of phytochemicals and anticancer drugs against gastrointestinal tumors: colon cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer. We focus on the molecular pathways, oncoproteins and tumor suppressors modulated by the combination of phytochemicals with antitumor drugs and on the biomarkers of the hallmarks of cancer influenced by these therapeutic strategies in cancer cell lines, xenograft models and clinical trials. The increased knowledge of biomarkers and molecular pathways regulated by the combination of phytochemicals and conventional anticancer drugs in both in vitro and in vivo models will remarkably improve the efficacy of these therapeutic strategies against gastrointestinal tumors in future innovative clinical applications.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-21
Numero di pagine21
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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  • ???subjectarea.asjc.3100.3105???
  • ???subjectarea.asjc.2200.2200???
  • ???subjectarea.asjc.1500.1508???
  • ???subjectarea.asjc.1700.1706???
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