Abstract

In past and recent times the anthropic pressure strongly influenced the dynamic of forest ecosystems in Europeand led to a drastic decrease of forest cover and distribution mainly in unmanaged areas. The term “urbanand community forests” refers to the trees and forests found in urbanized settings, in the center of cities andtowns, in suburbs and rural ommunities, and at the edge of wild lands. Trees in the urban environment are subjected to a number of stresses which are very different from those suffered by trees in typical rural conditions. Biodiversity has been reduced in urban areas through ecosystem destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of remaining ecosystems. Recent investigation reveals that urban areas can contain relatively high levels of biodiversity. Important percentages of species found in the surrounding natural habitat, including endangeredspecies, have been found in the urban forest. The relationship between silvicultural activities and decline of fungal communities in forest ecosystems has been highlighted by scientists. This abstract refers toinvestigation carried out in forest ecosystems that fall into the Oriented Nature Reserve “Pizzo Manolfo, RaffoRosso and Crocetta Trippatore” that fall on the mountains overlooking the town of Palermo. The main foresttypes in this area are: a) reforestation with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh; b) reforestation with Pinus halepensis Miller and P. pinea L. and, c) reforestation with elements of natural vegetation. Two plots size 200 m2 (10 m × 20 m) were delimited in each forest types, in one of which silvicultural practices were interrupted. 83 macromycetes collected over three years were listed and recorded in the plots as follow: 1) reforestation with E. camaldulensis (10 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 11 taxa in plots not subjected to silviculturalpractices); 2) reforestation with P. halepensis and P. pinea (9 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 5 taxa in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices); 3) reforestation with elements of natural vegetation (29 taxa in plots subjected to silvicultural practices and 8 taxa in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices). We alsocollected fungi in the surroundings of each plots and the number of species recorded was 37, 28 and, 15 taxa. Onthe basis of the data processing it is to be noted that the number of ectomyorrhizal fungi is low and below the threshold of 20% while more numerous are saprotrophs Sh, Pn(Sh), Sh(Pn), St, sensu Arnolds (7). Besidessaprotrophs on wood are prevalent in plots not subjected to silvicultural practices. This confirms the need toprevent the removal of biomass in forest ecosystems in order to maintain wood-inhabiting fungi species whichrepresent a highly species rich and ecologically important organism group in natural forests. Forestecosystems seemingly trivial such as reforestation of conifers continue to devote significant findings. This is the case of Mycena pseudoinclinata A.H. Sm., recently reported for the first time in Italy, whose distribution was limited to France, Switzerland, China and, United States. Besides, Ceriporia griseoviolascens M. Pieri & B. Riv (Polyporaceae s.l.) was collected in decaying stumps of P. pinea. The stone pine wood is a new host for this species previously reported only on Salix sp. and Populus nigra L. in France and on Arbutus unedo L. in Sardinia.
Lingua originaleEnglish
Pagine39-39
Numero di pagine1
Stato di pubblicazionePublished - 2014

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